Saturday, March 30, 2013

OWN Reality Show Reveals Charter Secrets

This from Louisiana Educator:
The Oprah Winfrey Network reality show, Blackboard Wars, filmed at John McDonogh Hi School in New Orleans this school year reveals some rather shocking details about how charter schools operate in Louisiana.

State Board president, Chas Roemer has often bragged that charter operators have the freedom to operate their schools without the usual bothersome red tape required of traditional schools. But we were always told that charters must comply with basic accountability and school reporting rules. Apparently they are exempt from much more than we were led to believe.

 John White and his Recovery School District administrators are always quite anxious to attract “quality” charter school operators to take over any low performing school that has been designated as 'failing" by the state accountability system. This low achieving category includes all of the direct run RSD (Recovery School District) schools. So John White and Patrick Dobard (Superintendent of RSD) were just thrilled when Steve Barr who runs the highly touted Green Dot charter system in Los Angeles agreed to take over John McDonogh High School in New Orleans. (Note: I have just been informed that Steve Barr is no longer affiliated with Green Dot.)

Also, he has no education credentials. Steve Barr was basically given free rein to do anything he wanted that may turn around John McDonogh. I'm sure Chas Roemer must have been ecstatic because he has recently advocated shutting down most of the DOE in favor of a system that lets anyone run a public school by any rules they choose as long as they can produce passing results on the accountability system. But meanwhile all the traditional public schools continue to be held to such mundane rules as strict student attendance reporting, reporting dropouts, complex discipline rules that require hearings before student suspensions (even for criminals), and student expulsion rules so strict that most educators agree that regular public school students can no longer be expelled no matter what they do. One principal told me that in the EBR school system, the special master appointed by the DOE to rule over school discipline even requires hearings before extremely disruptive or dangerous students are transferred to the alternative school.

Steve Barr, the savior of John McDonogh, was welcomed to New Orleans with much fanfare by the LDOE but not so much by the local citizens and parents of the John McDonogh community. Barr got off on the wrong foot by being quoted in NOLA dot com describing problems with poor student performance by saying, “This is what seven generations of crap looks like.”

To further demonstrate his arrogance, Barr approved a contract with the OWN network to produce a reality series on the turnaround effort at John McDonogh this year. He did not bother to inform his own Board of Directors of the deal and no one knows where the money paid by OWN to broadcast the reality show goes. Needless to say Barr has had a few contentious meetings with his own hand picked Board of Directors for the John McDonogh charter.

The reality series titled Blackboard Wars has been broadcast on the OWN network for about six weeks on Saturday nights and has revealed a lot of very unorthodox practices tolerated by our DOE at charter schools. None of these practices would be allowed by the LDOE in traditional public schools which are managed by a locally “elected” rather than appointed school boards.

The series started off by concentrating on the trials and tribulations of one of the young TFA teachers with the usual 5 week training/indoctrination course: “TFA will show you how to save these inner city children who have been so neglected by traditional teachers because you are so brilliant and you care so much more about children than they do.”

It turns out this young person had no understanding about the lifestyle of a poverty stricken inner city kid and also had no clue about how to teach Geometry to these kids. She got hit in the face while trying to break up a fight, could not even get any of the students to stop talking while she tried to lecture, and kept breaking down and crying in each of the episodes.

Secret #1: Charters save a lot of money on teaching staff by hiring a core of these compliant low pay teachers who can easily be replaced by a new batch of fresh recruits paid partially by large grants from rich charitable organizations like the Gates foundation and by LDOE grants. (Our tax dollars)

Dr Marvin Thompson, the principal for John McDonogh brought in by Steve Barr is depicted in the OWN series as a top notch education professional but nothing is said about whether he possesses the basic certification requirements for a Louisiana school principal.

Secret #2: Charter schools regularly ignore certification requirements for their administrators because Louisiana can "trust" the charter operators to bring in great talent from all over the country and pay them top salaries without regard to “paper” qualifications. Look at how we got John White. In a recent episode of Blackboard Wars Dr Thompson threw out a student who had been involved in a shootout off campus because he may become the target of retaliation which could be a danger to the other students at McDonogh.

Secret #3: Charter schools seldom suspend or expel troublesome students. They just “counsel them out”. This keeps their official records clean while getting rid of discipline problems and low performers. In contrast, traditional public schools are encouraged by the DOE to keep all students and to even accept rejects from the charters. Last year, a convicted rapist was assigned to a Baton Rouge high school, yet neither the principal nor the guidance counselor were notified of his rap sheet. Later in the year he raped a young student on campus. Only then when the news media publicized the rape and blamed the administration for a lack of security at the school did the principal learn that the offender had been previously convicted for rape. At the end of the year the principal resigned.

In a public school in Lafayette last week, a student teacher was thrown out of his practice teaching position because he attended a school board meeting and repeated some of the bad language being directed at teachers by students.

Another teacher in St. Landry was hit in the face by a student last week with minimal consequences for the student.

But Dr Thompson held an assembly program with faculty and students at John McDonogh and informed them that he had thrown out all the trouble makers so now they could expect a better school environment. We can only wonder how many of these were official expulsions and how many were just “counseled out”.

The most recent episode of Blackboard Wars featured a raucous community meeting held by Steve Bar and Dr Thompson to report on the progress of the school. Dr Thompson proudly announced to parents and community members that the school had improved student attendance from about 35% the previous year to approximately 80% this school year. But according to school statistics accessed on the DOE web site before White purged all the data links, none of the schools in the RSD have had attendance rates below 80% in recent years.

Secret #4. Just report anything to the public that makes it look like charters have made dramatic progress compared to the dismal past.

Two years ago, the DOE reported to the Legislature that the RSD had reduced its high school dropout rate to only 5% per year. This would have translated into approximately an 80% graduation rate, yet the real data showed that more than half the students starting the 9th grade had disappeared by their senior year. Back at McDonogh, Barr's community meeting ended in chaos with community members calling for Barr to go back to California. Here's just one more secret. Also in the last episode, OWN filmed an interview by Dr Thompson with a 20 year old young man who wanted to re enroll at McDonogh. In the conversation, the young man emphasized that he wanted to get a high school diploma because his father and most of his relatives had not gotten that far. But then he tells Dr Thompson: “That GED (program) is hard, so I came here.” Dr Thompson responds: “Well, we have a credit recovery program here and we can help you get that diploma.”

Secret #5: Credit recovery can be manipulated to give students credits toward graduation that they do not really have to earn. In credit recovery a student is supposed to get extra instruction to allow him to pass a required course that he previously failed. But one of the TFAers who transferred to another parish said that when RSD teachers warn a student that he is failing a course he often laughs and informs the teacher that the school administration will still give him credit for the course using credit recovery. Also, at a recent community meeting in New Orleans, one of the parents approached BESE member Lottie Beebie and confessed that her child had received credit for courses she had not ever taken!

Observation: A common gimmick used by most of the charters is to sell pie in the sky to the community and news media. Plastered on the walls at John McDonogh are slogans like: WHAT COLLEGE WILL YOU ATTEND (I noticed that the large question mark was missing from the end of the slogan but none of the students or producers of Blackboard Wars seemed to notice) This is an empty promise because the great majority of the students there will not in any way be prepared for college. These schools never seem to teach their students that most adults have to work at real jobs to earn a living. Most of the courses at this school do not relate to the real world nor prepare students for real world jobs. These kids are facing a dead end when they get their fake diplomas. But of course this fake college prep for all is being pushed by the top administrators in our LDOE. Chas Roemer, the new BESE president, believes that BESE can do away with most of the rules governing our public schools. Just let them do whatever it takes to get students to graduate college and career ready.

If you cut out the last 4 words of that statement you will have a good description how the RSD charters are getting the job done.

'A Needed Response'

 Might Be The Simplest, Best Reaction To Steubenville Rape Case

This from The Huffington Post:
"Hey bros, check who passed out on the couch," the guy in the video begins, staring into the camera, as a seemingly unconscious girl is sprawled out on the sofa behind him. "Guess what I'm going to do to her."

Probably not what you might think. The "bro" in question proceeds to give the girl a pillow, a blanket and a glass of water before turning back to the camera. "Real men treat women with respect," he says.

A mere 26 seconds, University of Oregon student Samantha Stendal's video, titled "A Needed Response," is as short and pithy as they come. Directed toward "the Steubenville rapists...or any rapists out there," the video's point may seem obvious, but the message could do with some reinforcement in the wake of the Steubenville rape trial.

Upworthy's Adam Mordecai sums it up well when he writes, "I can't believe this video is actually necessary. However, dudes need to learn how consent works."

Since being uploaded to YouTube last week, Stendal's video has been viewed more than one million times.

"The message I hope that people can get from this video is that we need to treat one another with respect," Stendal told KVAL News, in Eugene, Ore. "No matter what gender, we should be listening to each other and making sure there is consent."

Consent was at the center of the Steubenville rape trial, which culminated March 17 with the convictions of two Ohio high school football players for the rape of a 16-year-old girl at an alcohol-soaked party last summer. The case drew national headlines, and sparked a conversation about "how drunk is too drunk."

Walter Madison, an attorney for one of the convicted teens, told the Cleveland Plain Dealer that the victim "didn't affirmatively say no." But left-leaning news and culture magazine The Nation notes that "the absence of a 'no' is not the same thing as the presence of a 'yes.' And until American culture and law frames sexual consent as proactively, enthusiastically given, there will be no justice for rape victims."

Backstory from Deadspin:

The Atlanta Investigation: The Documents

This from Diane Ravitch's blog:
Erich Martel of D.C. posted the documents from the Atlanta investigation.
“These are the four Atlanta Public School (APS) Investigation Report documents:
There are some unexpected surprises. Supt. Hall hired two “experts” to do a review of a few schools in response to concerns. One is a well-known consultant, author of “Unpacking the Standards.” His report was very approving (he visited 8 schools in one day, during his 3-day stay). Supt Hall posted it on the APS website.
The other, critical report she “lost,” claiming that she never received it. Go to p. 311 of the “Exhibits to Report.”

Friday, March 29, 2013

Kentucky to JCPS: Make fixes at low-performing schools or face takeover

If not, low-performing schools face takeover

 This from the Courier-Journal:
Jefferson County Public Schools must better train its principals and remove union obstructions at its lowest-performing schools — part of a host of changes the district has to make to avoid a state takeover of those schools’ turnaround efforts.

The directives were outlined in a six-page letter written by Kentucky Education Commissioner Terry Holliday to JCPS Superintendent Donna Hargens and school board Chairwoman Diane Porter and discussed during a 90-minute private meeting Tuesday morning with David Karem, chairman of the Kentucky Board of Education, and other officials.
Hargens promised after the meeting the district “will address any specifics that are in the letter.”
“These are schools that have some challenges, and we are working through those and we have principals and staffs in place who are working hard,” she said. “This is really about the alignment of our efforts.”

The letter detailed ongoing problems that frustrated state education officials say have undermined turnaround efforts at 16 of the 18 JCPS schools that have been forced to undergo overhauls for chronically low student achievement.

That frustration bubbled over in recent weeks when Holliday called the lack of improvement at the those schools “academic genocide.”

In his letter, which The Courier-Journal obtained, Holliday reiterated “the urgency and need for turnaround efforts to ensure that all students in Jefferson County are provided an equal and adequate education under a system of efficient schools, as required by the state constitution.”

Holliday noted that the district has made improvements, including increased collaboration with state officials and higher graduation rates at some troubled schools.

And he acknowledged that the state shares some of the blame for failing to consistently monitor those schools or demand consistent expectations.

But he made it clear that the district must make changes if it wants to maintain control of turnaround efforts at its schools. And he threatened to withhold millions of dollars in federal grants earmarked for several schools if they failed to follow through with their turnaround plans.

Meanwhile in Southern Utah

This from the SUU University Journal:
Dear President Benson,

You should have seen the University Journal Editorial Board meeting Wednesday night. We talked about how you might be leaving SUU and realized how lucky SUU is to have you. For once, people were interrupting each other with positive comments instead of heated arguments.

You have a way of making every student feel valued and important, which is the way a university should be run. An effective learning community cannot exist if its leaders are domineering and condescending.

When Juniper Hall’s residents had to move out mid-semester, you were there helping them move. You go to nearly every SUU athletic competition, cheering in the stands along with the rest of us. You've even been known to go to athletic events which are hosted at other universities. You played the piano at the Pancake Study Break in December 2012. Every year, you welcome the entire freshman class to your home and greet each student who walks through your door. Thank you for being a T-Bird and being involved on campus.

Your charisma is something we wish we could use to help recruit new students. If we used that Harlem Shake video and a few other evidences of your involvement and charisma (not to mention that letter you sent out to everyone, asking for ideas for the budget!), the student population of SUU might just double. That is, if we could convince everyone seeing them that it’s for real, because they might think it’s all staged and too good to be true.

From a newspaper staff’s standpoint, we know we aren’t likely to find any other university president whose caliber approaches yours. You always get back to us when we are looking for information or an interview. You have an open-door policy — and people take you up on it, because you are so approachable. We’ve had to send you emails in the wee hours of the morning and are always amazed when we get a prompt response.

We want to wish you luck with your candidacy at Eastern Kentucky University. Becoming the university president there would be a great step in your career. At the same time, we think SUU is blessed to have you here, and we know it isn’t likely that we will find someone of your caliber again anytime soon.

No matter what happens, Pres. Benson, we are behind you 100 percent. Thank you for being so great at what you do for us.


The University Journal Editorial Board

Hat tip to Dean.

Thursday, March 28, 2013

On the Record with Alan T. Shao

The following is the result of our research on EKU Presidential finalist Alan T. Shao. All of the material contained herein is cited or linked to the original source for those who may wish to dig a bit deeper. Of the three finalists, Shao is the scholar, having risen through the ranks by the production of scholarly pieces, some of which are captured at the end of this material.

To repeat, it is our hope that readers will gain a sense of the candidate, his career path, ideas, skills, vision, and ability to communicate as a scholar and as a university leader. What issues did the candidate face during his career and how did he respond to them? How do his responses match EKU sensibilities?

We encourage readers on the EKU campus to look over the material as background, and then go meet the candidate and decide for yourself if we have found the right fit for EKU.

The data is generally present in chronological order, except that we are leading with two recent videos featuring Shao. Otherwise, articles in the public domain are presented beginning in 1994. Scroll down for more recent stuff. Following that material, we touch on Shao at LinkedIn, and his Twitter feed before presenting some selected research (This was not an exhaustive search to confirm everything on his vitae or to pass on its quality). We ended up with 42 pages of material, edited down.

The public record on Shao presents a very good Dean and recognized teacher. Our first (and second-hand) sources at Charleston (some of whom are former EKU folks) indicate that Shao is well-respected and runs an effective, energetic college. He is described as very impressive, thoughtful, accessible, visionary and efficient. He has brought funds to the college, and is respected in the community. One source says it was her impression that he "helps get his faculty the resources they need and then gets out of their way to let them do their jobs." High praise, indeed.

Shao earned his Ph. D. in Marketing at the University of Alabama-Tuscaloosa and knows how to yell, "Roll Tide!"

Dr. and Carol Shao have three children: Janine,24; Victoria, 22; and Alan II, 17.  

On with the show.

And this:

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Thursday, September 8, 1994
Author: KAREN CIMINO, Staff Writer
The Concord-Cabarrus Chamber of Commerce recently honored several individuals for their participation in and graduation from the 1994-95 Leadership Cabarrus Program. 

The program is designed to train local business people and organizational leaders to be active in determining the future of the community. 

Students attend seminars focusing on their potential contributions to the community and then graduate with the expectation that they will use their skills to improve the community. 

Graduates are…: Alan Shao, associate professor of marketing at UNC Charlotte; …

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Wednesday, March 5, 1997
To meet the growing demands of Charlotte companies with global customers, UNC Charlotte's business school plans to start the Center for International Business this summer. 

``We're trying to get the Belk College of Business (Administration) closely linked to the international business community,'' said Alan Shao, associate professor of marketing and the proposed director of the center. ``Many times area businesses in Charlotte don't know whether international opportunities exist for them. The center would be involved in helping those businesses reach their full potential.'' 

The Center for International Business would serve as the point of contact for any new or established company, organization or association seeking information and assistance on international business.
Some of the center's objectives are to establish guest lectures from international business managers, student visits to company offices and seminars on global issues. The center also could increase student internship opportunities, including at companies abroad. 

Shao said the center will work closely with the U.S. Export Assistance Center, the chamber and the Charlotte World Trade Center Association to avoid duplicating services.

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Thursday, April 9, 1998
Edward Mazze is stepping down from his post as dean of UNC Charlotte's Belk College of Business Administration to write books, do research, teach and mentor students.
Alan Shao, the school's director of international studies, said the reaction to the news was split between a few faculty who thought ``it just fell out of the sky'' and others, such as himself, who knew Mazze had other things he wanted to pursue. 

``I just think the average span for a dean is five to six years, so he's right on target. I think he needs time to expand his wings,'' Shao said. ``I have such tremendous respect for him.'' …

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Tuesday, February 23, 1999
Author: AUDREY Y. WILLIAMS, Staff Writer
There was a common theme at a Monday conference where 300 college students gathered to learn more about international business careers: Nearly every job has a link to the international marketplace.
``It's not enough to just get an education. Experience counts in finding a job,'' said Alan Shao, coordinator of UNCC's international business program.…

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Monday, March 27, 2000
Author: AMBER VEVERKA, Staff Writer
Customer privacy is a hot banking issue in the United States, but apparently not nearly as hot as elsewhere. 

Alan Shao, UNC Charlotte associate professor of marketing and coordinator of the International Business Program, was in southern China during the past couple of weeks to speak on and study differences in U.S. and Chinese market research. 

And there are quite a few differences. Shao presented a marketing seminar to China Merchants Bank, one of the country's largest financial institutions. What he learned, Shao said, was that Chinese banks don't know much about their customers. 

"It's very, very difficult to do any successful marketing research of their customers because many of their customers don't like to give out personal information," said Shao. "I said, `Look, why don't you simply get the branches to have a survey there so when people come in ... they can fill out a demographic survey and you can have a better profile of your customers." …

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Saturday, October 2, 2004
UNC Charlotte psychology professor Lawrence Calhoun has taught at the school for 32 years and has co-authored nearly 80 research articles and six books. 

Friday, he took home one award. It's the university's most prestigious teaching honor - the Bank of America Award for Teaching Excellence.…
The runners-up were: David Amante, associate professor of English; Lienne Edwards, associate professor of family and community nursing; Harold Jaus, professor of education; and Alan Shao , professor of marketing. The four finalists each received a framed citation, $250 for library purchases and a $2,000 cash award.

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Thursday, March 31, 2005
The Carolina Panthers should suffer little long-term public-relations damage if a brewing steroid scandal doesn't bubble beyond a few players acting on their own, experts said Wednesday. 

"If it's more widespread, then it can become more of a problem," said Alan Shao, professor of marketing and international business at UNC Charlotte. 

The team is well regarded in a league that is known for its strong fan base and its efforts to thwart steroid use, experts said. But allegations against current and former Panthers players come only weeks after highly publicized congressional hearings over the use of performance-enhancing drugs in Major League Baseball.
The Panthers built tremendous goodwill by bringing the NFL to Charlotte and by making an appearance in the Super Bowl, said Shao, the UNC Charlotte professor. The team also was a steady presence when the city's National Basketball Association franchise, the Charlotte Hornets, fled town a couple of years ago, he said. 

"I think the Panthers have so much positive clout in the community," he said. He also noted that the allegations haven't touched the team's key stars.

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Sunday, May 29, 2005
Author: JEFF ELDER, Staff Writer
UNCC meets Far East 

Alan Shao of UNCC's Belk College of Business just returned from Taiwan where he was hooking up with business schools at universities there. 

UNCC will set up an executive MBA program based in Taiwan, with 35 students in the first year next fall. 

"The demand is there and the numbers are growing dramatically," said Shao, of Belk's international business programs. "So we're going to them, instead of asking them to come to us." 

Funny: Shao jogged around the Presidential Palace in Taipei and noticed something interesting about all the cars used for VIPs. 

There in the Far East, every single one was American.

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Sunday, October 2, 2005
Author: JEFF ELDER, Staff Writer
Shanghai surprise 

Alan Shao 's been in Shanghai. The associate dean for International Programs in the Belk College of Business at UNC Charlotte was in China last week, along with UNC System President Molly Broad and a few chancellors, provosts, deans and chairs. They were buddying up with Fudan University, one of the top universities in China. 

At one point Shao strolled through the Shanghai Museum with Terry Rodenberg of East Carolina University. The two walked for about two hours, then took a seat in a pleasant room in the basement. 

Everyone else was staring at the two men, but they shrugged it off as being conspicuous foreigners. 

"It wasn't until that evening that we learned that the room where we were resting our tired legs was reserved for young engaged couples," Shao says. "The Belk College at UNC Charlotte wants to establish closer ties with our sister state universities, but marriage is strictly out of the question. I'm sure that our wives wouldn't like it, either."

Educator's greatest pride is his family's successes
Virginian-Pilot, The (Norfolk, VA) - Sunday, March 19, 2006
Even though Stephen Shao has a building honoring his name in China, more than 30 published books known across the world and has traveled the globe several times, his most valued accomplishment lies in his children. 

"I think I can look back and say I did a good job with my kids," the Lake Shores resident said. "I have passed on many important lessons including that life is not about making money for yourself, but using what you have learned to help the world around you." 

Shao, 81, helped the world around him by starting with his own family. All eight of his children graduated from college. And all eight at some point in their education attended ODU. 
Stephen Shao Jr., 51, went on to receive his doctorate from the University of Maryland and is the director of the business bureau at Tennessee State University. He has two sons who attend Vanderbilt University and a daughter still in high school. 

The second son, Dale Shao, 49, got his doctorate from Georgia State University and is a professor at Marshal University in West Virginia. 

The third born, Lawrence Shao, 48, received his Ph.D. from the University of Tennessee and is the division head of the finance and economic department. 

Alan Shao, 46, the fourth born, earned his doctorate from Alabama State University and is a professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. …
Shao taught at ODU for 34 years, offering business, finance and management courses. He was the university's first Chinese professor. 

He immigrated to the United States in 1948 and attended Baylor University in Waco, Texas. He went on to get his Ph.D. from the University of Texas. 

For all his accomplishments, his hometown of Yixing, China, near Shanghai, constructed a library there in his honor. Also, one of his recent books, "Memories in Two Nations: China and the U.S.A." was translated into Chinese. 

"I tried to do a good job with my life," he said. "I am proud of everything I did, but I am even more proud of my children." 

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Saturday, December 16, 2006
Sitting in UNC Charlotte's commencement ceremonies today are 11 students who flew more than 15 hours across 8,000-plus miles to turn their tassels with fellow classmates. 

The group is among the first graduates of an executive MBA program that UNCC's Belk College of Business offers in Taipei, Taiwan. …
Attending the Charlotte ceremonies wasn't mandatory. The Belk College will hold an event for the entire 30-member MBA class early next year in Taipei. 

But the students' decision to travel overseas didn't surprise professor Alan Shao, the Belk College's associate dean for international programs. The MBA program is run by Belk College faculty who frequently talked about the banking centers in the city. 

"I knew that they were very interested to see Charlotte," Shao said. 

The students also were curious about the university, which they said has a reputation as being one of the nation's best financial schools.

Charlotte Observer, The (NC) - Sunday, October 21, 2007
Author: Observer Staff…
Shao named to new position 

Alan Shao was recently named associate dean for professional graduate and global business programs in the Belk College of Business. He has served as associate dean for international programs since 2005. 

In addition to developing and directing the Belk College's academic programs in Europe, Latin America and Asia, Shao will oversee administration of the MBA, sports MBA and master of accountancy programs in Charlotte. 

"Alan's vast experience in marketing will be invaluable as we develop a strong collective brand identity for our professional graduate programs," Steven Ott, interim dean of the Belk College, said in a statement. 

State of N.C. is losing jobs to China
Mecklenburg Times, The (Charlotte, NC) - Tuesday, August 5, 2008
Author: Carolyn Steeves
Since 2001, North Carolina has said goodbye to almost 80,000 jobs as they were shipped to China, according to a recent study. 

While this fact won't come as a surprise to anyone who has followed the woes of the U.S. textile industry, which was a dominant employer in North Carolina before many jobs were lost to overseas competitors, at least one business leader thinks the region is better off as a result. 
Because of the nature of the jobs in question, the area may actually be more prosperous with those positions going to China, Tony Crumbley told The Mecklenburg Times.
If the job losses won't be missed, that's probably fortunate, because, according to Alan Shao, a professor of marketing and global business at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, those jobs won't be coming back. 

"This is a trend that has obviously been going on for a while," Shao told The Times. "The Chinese have been taking jobs since the mid-'80s on a pretty heavy basis." 

Shao is not optimistic for the future of these types of jobs in the area, saying there is "no end in sight." 

"If we don't become more efficient as far as our operations are concerned, we're going to lose more jobs," he said.

Business Briefs
Summer 2009
“New Dean Bringing Innovation and Globalization to the Frorfront.”

C of C center ends Home Value Index project
Post and Courier, The (Charleston, SC) - Monday, February 1, 2010
Author: KATY STECH, Real Estate The Post and Courier
Like so many other real estate ventures in this strained market, the College of Charleston Home Value Index is dead.
The deeply complex research model analyzing 60 characteristics in recently sold homes was introduced as another way to see how Low country home prices were faring in the depressed real estate market. …
Tim Allen, the Carter Real Estate Center's head who oversaw the project, has stopped putting out his month-over-month value estimates, the college said. 

"Because of the reduction in state support, we have to prioritize more tightly now," said Alan Shao, dean of the College of Charleston's School of Business and Economics. 

"That's one of the things we couldn't afford to continue doing." 

But wait: Wasn't the home value model first pitched as a moneymaker for the college? 

Weren't local developers going to be able to buy information that the model produced, including popular home features and predictions for future pricing trends? 

"It never got to that point," Shao said. "We've restructured the Carter Center to concentrate much more on commercial than residential."

Post and Courier, The (Charleston, SC) - Tuesday, March 9, 2010
Author: Staff reports
C of C to get up to $1M donation
A South Carolina entrepreneur now living in Vietnam will donate up to $1 million over the next two years to the College of Charleston for programs in its business school.
Jack Tate, who founded Carolina Baby Superstores, a retail chain he sold to Toys R Us in 2002, is making the donation to help pay for the school's new master of business administration, which is currently in the final approval stages with the state's Commission on Higher Education, and a new program to promote cultural and business understanding between the United States and Vietnam, said Alan Shao, dean of the college's business school.
Tate donated $250,000 this year and will donate another $250,000 in 2011, Shao said. He will contribute an additional $500,000 if the college can match it with cash or in-kind contributions, he said.
The college will use some of the money to launch the Center of Vietnamese Enterprise in the fall, Shao said.
The program will bring Vietnamese students to the college to study language and culture. It also will send College of Charleston undergraduates to Vietnam to study language, culture and business, he said.
That's important because Vietnam has become a thriving manufacturing center, and in some areas, a competitor to China, he said.

The Keyway
March 30, 2010:

Valerie Morris introduced Dr. Alan Shao, Dean of the Business School of the College of Charleston. Dr. Shao indicated that, prior to taking the position of Dean of the Business School of the College of Charleston, he taught
at the U. of Alabama and was Dean of the Business School at the U. of North Carolina for 19 years. He said that he has traveled to China more than a hundred times, often as a business consultant to many major companies who do business with the Chinese. In 2005 he was listed in the Journal of Advertising as one of the most influential leaders in the country. Shao stated that his mother is from South Carolina though his ancestry in China.

Dr. Shao said that the number one challenge in higher education today is competition from for-profit schools. From 1988 – 1998, growth in for-profit schools grew by 319%. From 1998 – 2008, growth in for-profit schools grew by 664%. An example he cited was that the U. of Phoenix currently has 455,000 students on the rolls. For-profit institutions have grown at a rate of 9% per year over the past 10 years.

He said that the reason for this is that these schools are: 1) Student focused; 2) Convenient within a community;
3) Make up 7% of all college enrollments.

In South Carolina, Dr. Shao said that there is a minimal support for state run schools – 10%; and maximum control of the C of C by the state – 100%. Only $424 million is offered in financial support to all schools in the entire state. Whereas, $458 million is given by the state of Georgia to the U. of Georgia alone.

Dr. Shao then showed an excellent video highlighting qualities of the C of C Business School. He boasted that only 5% of the business schools in the entire United States have as high of a certification as the C of C. Currently he is celebrating his first full year as Dean of the business school. He said that a current and ongoing goal is that of globalization. He wants to strongly market the school outside of the United States.

Dr. Shao then outlined five goals that he has for the business school. They are:
Step 1: Globalization (they are currently working closely with China).
Step 2: Increasing graduate programs.
Step 3: Increase community partnerships.
Step 4: Train students to “think differently.”
Step 5: Increase online education opportunities.

These steps are a snapshot of where he sees the future of the business school heading. He added that they are also attempting to become less dependent on state support and provide a more student-oriented educational experience. When asked about how much money the business school wanted from the state, he responded by saying that he wanted the school to become 100% independent from state resources and that to do that he will be generating funds from private sources. He wants to reduce dependence on the state and become self-supportive.

College of Charleston School of Business receives $1 million commitment

Mar. 11, 2010
Swamp Fox
The College of Charleston has signed an agreement with Jack Tate, a South Carolina entrepreneur who founded Carolina Baby Superstores, through which Tate will donate up to $1 million to the College Foundation over the next two years.

The College will match Tate’s financial gift in-kind and cash to help fund two key initiatives in the School of Business. The money is designated for two separate initiatives: the new Center of Vietnamese Enterprise and the pending M.B.A. or other academic programs.

“Jack Tate’s generous gift will allow the School of Business to launch a full-time M.B.A. program for Charleston that will prepare students for careers in our global economy,” says George Benson, president of the College of Charleston. “This gift will also help the College establish academic and economic relationships between South Carolina and Vietnam. Both of these initiatives align with the College’s new Strategic Plan, which seeks to establish greater connections between our academic programs and the world around us.”

Tate contributed an additional amount to establish the Jack Tate Distinguished Professor position. Alan T. Shao, dean of the School of Business, holds the distinguished professor position…

C of C readies its fast-track MBA - Students able to finish in 13 months
Post and Courier, The (Charleston, SC) - Monday, May 10, 2010
Author: DIANE KNICH, The Post and Courier
The College of Charleston now offers a fast-track master's of business administration degree, a move that allows the school to play in the big leagues, President George Benson says.

The state's Commission on Higher Education gave the program final approval last week, and the first group of about 35 students will begin in July. Students can focus on either finance or marketing.

Alan Shao, dean of the college's School of Business, said the program will offer classes during the day. And students can finish in 13 months, which includes a summer "boot camp" where they learn or brush up on basic business skills.

Students go through the program as a group, he said, and they all will be required to participate in a three-week work-abroad experience….
Benson said a full-time, day-time program was something the college was missing. "Now we're whole," he said.

With its brisk pace and international component, the program is the kind that will draw qualified students to Charleston, Benson said.

Shao said he's discussed the program with university leaders in parts of Europe and Asia, and they have expressed interest in sending students to the college. "It will be a very diverse program," he said.

Shao said he can't yet announce how much the program will cost students. There will be a special pricing structure because it is an accelerated program, he said, and the amount must be approved by the college's Board of Trustees.

But the program will be self-supporting and won't use any state money, Shao said. "It will be totally supported by tuition dollars." 

Darby Named College of Charleston Business School Board Chairman

July 13, 2010
From kpnewsroom: 
Charles P. “Buddy” Darby, III, Named Chair of the Schoolof Business Board of Governors
 July 13, 2010– The College of Charleston School of Business announces the appointment of Charles Pinckney “Buddy” Darby, III, CEO, Kiawah Development Partners, as Chair of its Board of Governors.  The invitation to Chair the Board came from Alan T. Shao, Dean of the Schoolof Business.

Anita Zucker, chairperson and CEO of the Intertech Group, stepped down after four years of leading the board, and will remain a member of the board’s executive committee.  “We are extremely grateful to Anita for her service to the Schoolof Business.  She is a friend and remains a champion of education on so many levels,” says Dean Shao. 

Darby has the primary responsibility for Kiawah Island’s development activities and oversees all operations involved in developing the Island as one of the world’s top-rated golf and vacation destinations.

“The School of Business’ long-term strategy is to expand our academic programs and establish innovative, global partnerships.  The timing is ideal for Buddy Darby to assume the Chair of our Board,” says Dean Shao.  “His proven strategic planning and leadership experience is evident in his successful business achievements.  He is a well-established and respected community business leader and I look forward to working with him to build our reputation as a widely recognized business school.”

Global Carolina Business Journal

Michelin and CoC to Develop Virtual Logistics Training

CHARLESTON, SC – Michelin has selected the College of Charleston School of Business to deliver a global logistics and transportation professional development program for Michelin employees and the company’s affiliates. The “Michelin North America Logistics Professional Development Online Program” brings together business school faculty and Michelin employees in a virtual training environment.  
The program will be developed and evaluated over two years with plans to continually improve the quality and content of the online delivery. The long-term goal is to develop a comprehensive logistics professional development online program for business, education or government entities operating or seeking to operate in South Carolina or use the Port of Charleston for importing and exporting goods. 
“The College of Charleston School of Business has built a solid reputation for providing a relevant, rich learning environment for both students and professionals alike,” said Dick Wilkerson, chairman and president of Michelin North America. “We are confident this combination of expertise and education will benefit Michelin employees and College of Charleston’s students.”
The four general training modules or knowledge domains covered in the training are:
  • Import/export documentation
  • Port of Charleston and U.S. customs
  • Regulations and pricing
  • Operations
Additional topics will be added to the curriculum as the program expands over the next two years.
“We are grateful for Michelin’s interest in College of Charleston’s strong global logistics program and look forward to a productive and meaningful training relationship with the company, its affiliates, our faculty and students,” says Alan T. Shao, Dean of the School of Business. “Our professional development agreement is an ideal collaboration to help Michelin and other companies train their workforce, improve logistics capabilities and strengthen South Carolina’s position in global logistics.” …

Students finish accelerated MBA in China
Post and Courier, The (Charleston, SC) - Sunday, May 22, 2011

The inaugural class of the College of Charleston's new fast-track master of business administration degree is about to finish the program, but not before a trip to China to learn about the business climate and culture there.
Alan Shao, dean of the college's business school, said the 13-month accelerated MBA program, which was launched last summer, has been a success so far. The program focuses on business in the Charleston area, but also strives to bring students global knowledge, he said. "I didn't think our business school could be a real business school without being global," he said.
Twenty-three students will graduate in August, Shao said, after they take a three-week group trip to China in June. The students will visit many different businesses, especially those that focus on manufacturing, and some universities, he said. …
Rhonda Mack, an associate dean in the business school, said students must be prepared to put nearly all of their energy into the program. They can do very little outside work.
That's different than a lot of MBA programs, which offer night classes to working professionals, Shao said. The Charleston area had evening programs, but didn't have a daytime, accelerated program until the college launched its program last year, he said.
Students in the current class had a choice of focusing on finance or marketing, he said. But the next class, which will begin in August with about 30 students, also can choose to focus on revenue management in the hospitality and tourism industry. …
Shao said the program teaches students not only the essential academic courses, but also prepares them to function in the business world. Local business leaders address students every Friday, he said. And all students get coaching from the college's men's golf coach, Mark McEntire.
A great deal of business is conducted on golf courses, Shao said, so it's important for students to have a basic understanding of the game. "You don't have to be good at golf," he said. "You just have to know how to use golf to your advantage."

India’s Ambassador visits the College

March 12, 2012
The Indian Ambassador to the United States, Ambassador Nirupama Rao, made her rounds to select colleges and universities as part of her inaugural trip to the U.S. since taking office as Ambassador in September 2011. On February 27, Ambassador Rao visited the College of Charleston where she met with P. George Benson, president of the College of Charleston, Alan T. Shao, dean of the School of Business, and other campus leaders.
Ambassador Rao’s visit to the College was hosted by the School of Business and the School of Languages, Cultures and World Affairs.  Her campus itinerary began with a private meeting with President Benson and Dean Shao to discuss specialized academic areas including hospitality and tourism management, international business and overseas partnerships.
With global awareness and learning as one of Dean Shao’s top priorities, the meeting with Ambassador Rao opened another possible door to international partnerships and collaborations with universities in India.
The Ambassador had requested an informal event with both faculty and students, allowing her to experience the day-to-day atmosphere of the College.

Schools team to offer combined MBA, law degrees

Release Date: 10/17/2012
Charleston Law News:                            
OCTOBER 17, 2012 -- Students who want to receive two major advanced degrees at one time can take advantage of a new dual-degree program that will be offered for the first time next year by the Charleston School of Law and the College of Charleston School of Business.
The new program will allow participating students to receive a law degree as well as a master’s degree in business administration (MBA) in three and a half years -- half a year less than if students pursued the degrees separately.
“Not only is this a way for students to save money and time, but this dual-degree program will help students interested in law and business develop professional synergies that might not be apparent if they were training separately,” said Charleston School of Law Dean Andy Abrams.
Alan T. Shao, dean of the College of Charleston School of Business said the combined degree was a smart way for students to get ready for careers that combine law and business.
“We are eager to accept high performing law students into our MBA program and help them differentiate their credentials before they enter the job market,” says Alan T. Shao, Dean of the School of Business.  “This is an exciting partnership with the Charleston School of Law and we look forward to working with the administration and their talented candidates.”

First statewide Supply Chain Summit to be hosted by College of Charleston
Union Daily Times, The (SC) - Friday, January 11, 2013
CHARLESTON - The College of Charleston will host the first South Carolina Supply Chain Summit on March 22, 2013 in the School of Business Beatty Center …
The outcome of the Summit will increase our state's economic future and better position South Carolina as a world class leader in supply chain capabilities. Several public universities and colleges in S.C. offer programs in some aspect of supply chain operations from business management and marketing to industrial process engineering.…
"The College of Charleston recognizes that supply chain infrastructure and resource capabilities are economic drivers that differentiate South Carolina and serve as catalysts for more companies to relocate or expand in our thriving state," says Alan Shao, dean of the School of Business. "While we have much to be proud of in our state's supply chain capabilities and services, we have the opportunity to improve our assets through academic-industry partnerships that enable collaboration, quality education, research, and shared practices."

College of Charleston Students Can Major in Marketing Starting in Fall 2013, SC Feb. 14, 2013 – The College of Charleston announces a new undergraduate major in the School of Business. Beginning in fall 2013, students will be able to major in marketing. The full major is an expansion of the current concentration in marketing and is designed to give graduates a stronger degree designation.
“The marketing major is a positive addition to our portfolio of business offerings that meet the demands of our students and the business community,” says Alan T. Shao, dean of the School of Business. “Demand for the new major is high, especially with 50 or 60 students already in the concentration. We anticipate even more students will enroll in the major.”
Graduates with a marketing major will be able to evaluate a firm’s operating environment, identify and help to sustain competitive advantages through marketing strategies, and ultimately generate superior value for customers and other stakeholders. Students will be able to design and optimize the marketing mix for a company or organization.
“As a College of Charleston business administration student, I took every marketing course offered and that foundation has served me well,” said Steve Warner, vice president of global marketing/regional competitiveness for the Charleston Regional Development Alliance. “As our region continues to grow and the creative industries continue to thrive, businesses need a workforce that is relevant and knowledgeable about the strategies of the workplace. This new marketing major is relevant and valuable to a wide variety of industry sectors, and reinforces that Charleston is a globally competitive location for business and talent.”
Students who choose to major in marketing will be required to take courses in marketing concepts, marketing research, consumer behavior, international marketing and marketing management. In addition, the elective courses include advertising, advertising campaigns, the business of television, professional selling, purchasing and supply chain management, sports marketing and social media marketing.
The faculty bring a range of marketing knowledge and experience to the classroom, including teaching, research and industry expertise.
“Many of our professors run their own businesses or product lines, have implemented major marketing campaigns and earned international recognition for their work,” Shao says. “Students always appreciate their perspectives in the classroom.”


1989: Ph.D. in Marketing, with a minor in Statistics, University of Alabama–Tuscaloosa
1983: M.B.A. with a concentration in Management, Old Dominion University
1981: B.S. in General Business, Old Dominion University

Career Highlights

2009–Present: Dean, School of Business, College of Charleston
2009–2011: Jack Tate Distinguished Professor, College of Charleston
2005–2009: Associate Dean of Professional and Global Programs, UNC Charlotte
1990–2009: North Carolina Ports Professor of Marketing, UNC Charlotte
1995–2005: Director, International Business Program, Belk College of Business Administration, UNC Charlotte
1988–1989: Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Michael J. Coles College of Business, Kennesaw State University
1987–1988: Visiting Professor, Department of Marketing, College of Business, University of South Florida

Honors and Achievements

2004: Bank of America Award for Teaching Excellence Finalist, UNC Charlotte
2003: Excellence in Teaching Award, Belk College of Business Administration, UNC Charlotte
2003: Best Presenter Award, The International Business & Management Research Conference, Hawaii
2002: Gray’s MBA Outstanding Teaching Award, Belk College of Business Administration, UNC Charlotte
2001: International Education 2001 Faculty Award, UNC Charlotte
1993–1995: Fellow, Pacific Cultural Foundation, Taiwan
1989: Outstanding Teacher Award, University of South Florida
1988: Alpha Mu Alpha, National Marketing Honorary, American Marketing Association

Alan T. Shao

Dean, School of Business College of Charleston
  1. College of Charleston
  1. University of North Carolina at Charlotte,
  2. Kennesaw State University,
  3. University of South Florida
  1. University of Alabama

Alan T. Shao on Twitter:


Alan T. Shao started as Dean of the School of Business at the College of Charleston on March 15, 2009. He was at UNC Charlotte for 19 years before that.


  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 12 Mar
Congrats to our Cougars for an outstanding season. Coach's first year at 24-10 is phenomenal!
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 7 Mar
Went to SC legislative reception last night in Columbia. Speaker of the House Harrell serves on my board. He's a great leader for our state.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 26 Feb
Gary DiCamillo, former CEO of Polaroid and Worldwide Power Tools and Accessories will soon be volunteering to assist our business school.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 23 Feb
Our new BMW Advantage Program creates polished students in Global Logistics and Transportation via study abroad and career planning.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 23 Feb
Excellent visit with Michelin CEO Pete Selleck. We'll grow our relationship with them through internships and other student programs.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 18 Feb
Busy week ahead...meetings then off to Greenville to meet with CEO of Michelin and director of marketing at BMW for continued support.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 18 Feb
I'm back from Brussels and Swiss. I hope to start an MBA program in Switzerland, but we have challenges ahead.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 12 Feb
I am in Brussels at EQUIS conference. We hope to get this accreditation within three years. It's 28 degrees here! Brrr...
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 7 Feb
@janineashao @ESPNUThe Tide keeps rolling!!! Number 1 recruiting class in the nation. Looks like we'll be on top for a while longer...
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 6 Feb
No football team at CofC, so I follow my alma mater U. of Alabama. Just completed ESPN #1 recruiting class this year. Roll tide!
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 5 Feb
I had lunch today with David Morgan, CEO of Litton Entertainment. He develops new television shows for CBS. Great friend and board member!
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 5 Feb
Met today with Christopher McKee, CEO of PRS Group. I used to use his pubs like Political Risk Yearbook and Country Background Notes.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 4 Feb
Okay. Not the best Super Bowl prediction, but at least I got the 31 correct for San Francisco. Didn't know the Ravens had it in 'em.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 3 Feb
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 3 Feb
@janineashao @victoriashao San Fran looks really nervous!
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 2 Feb
My prediction for the Super Bowl: San Fran 31, Baltimore 17. Congrats to 49ers!
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 2 Feb
Dean's Student Forum held a tailgate party before the basketball game. Huge turnout and engaged students, alumni, faculty, board and staff.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 31 Jan
Congrats to Coach Doug Wojcik for a great win last night over App State. 15-7 so far. Amazing for his first season at Charleston. Go Cougs!
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 31 Jan
What makes my job fun? Well, tonight I'm attending a roast of Anita Zucker (CEO, Intertech). This event is put on by Trident Literacy.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 29 Jan
Weather in Charleston today: 75 degrees and sunny. Forecast for business school: grad programs in Europe/Asia and maybe a doctorate program
  1. Alan T. ShaoAlan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 26 Jan
Degrees that Saw the Highest Pay Raises for 2012 Graduates - My Money ( via @usnews
  1. Alan T. ShaoAlan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 26 Jan
Enjoyed dinner last night with George and Dorie Spaulding. There is no finer people on this earth than the Spauldings. They are dear friends
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 25 Jan
Excellent board meeting last night about our new building and philanthropy. President Benson gave interesting "New Charleston" speech.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 24 Jan
47 amazing members on our board, including: Anita Zucker, Buddy Darby, Tommy Baker, Jim Newsome, Bob Siegel, Marc Chardon, Shawn Jenkins...
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 24 Jan
Today is our Board of Governors meeting. Buddy Darby as chair, we'll be discussing our proposed new building for graduate and exec programs.
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 22 Jan
@victoriashao You got that right! I've finally decided to enter the social media world. It will be fun and informative...
  1. Alan T. Shao @DeanShao_CofC 22 Jan
Welcome to my first tweet. I hope you enjoy following my adventures as Dean of the School of Business. It's a role I cherish...

Selected Research
(Note: There was so much code written into the original sources that I expect many formatting issues in this section. Let me apologize in advance.)

Marketing Research, 3rd Edition
Alan Shao

Journal of International Business Studies (2009) 40, 339–352; doi:10.1057/jibs.2008.76

Competitive position, managerial ties, and profitability of foreign firms in China: an interactive perspective

Julie Juan Li1, Kevin Zheng Zhou2 and Alan T Shao2
  1. 1Department of Marketing, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong
  2. 2Department of Marketing, Belk College of Business, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, USA
Correspondence: JJ Li, Department of Marketing, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong. Tel: +852 2788 7865; Fax: +852 2788 9146; E-mail:
Received 31 March 2006; Revised 15 July 2007; Accepted 19 February 2008; Published online 6 November 2008.


Despite the prominence of the competitive strategy perspective, it remains unclear whether foreign firms entering China can still adopt a differentiation or low-cost position to achieve superior performance, given the unique market and institutional environments in China. Alternatively, should foreign firms follow conventional wisdom and actively build managerial ties with government officials and business community to enhance their performance? This study develops and tests an interactive perspective that highlights the moderating effects of managerial ties on competitive position–performance relationships. The results indicate that though both differentiation and low-cost positions foster foreign firm profitability, the benefit of a differentiation position is conditional on political and business ties in different directions: political ties impede and business ties strengthen the positive effect of a differentiation position on foreign firms' profitability. Moreover, foreign firms benefit from their use of business ties, but their profitability suffers when they rely increasingly on the heavy use of political ties.

European Journal of Marketing

ISSN: 0309-0566
Online from: 1967
Subject Area: Marketing

Market orientation and incumbent performance in dynamic market

Document Information:
Market orientation and incumbent performance in dynamic market
Monica L. Perry, (California State University, Fullerton, California, USA,), Alan T. Shao, (University of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA)

10.1108/03090560210437370 (Permanent URL)
The extant literature suggests that performance may be a function of the degree to which market information is systematically collected, disseminated and responded to (i.e. market orientation). However, the majority of empirical research on the market orientation to performance relationship has focused on manufacturers and has not distinguished between incumbents and new entrants. Our study of incumbent firms involves the market orientation to performance relationship in the context of services in the growing and competitive Internet industry. We found that market orientation did not directly affect performance, nor did the interaction of market orientation and perceptions of new competitors. However, perceptions of traditional competitors directly affected performance and interacted with market orientation to affect performance.

Global Television Advertising Restrictions: The Case of Socially Sensitive Products
Author ; Shao, A. T. Hill, J. S.
Bibliographic details 1994, VOL 13; NUMBER 4, pages 347 Publisher
Country of publication Great Britain ISBN
ISSN 0265-0487

Marketing Implications of China's `Little Emperors'
Author: Shao, A. T. Herbig, P.
Bibliographic details 1994, VOL 16; NUMBER 1, pages 16 Publisher
Country of publication USA ISBN
ISSN 0034-6454 Language  
Pricing To buy the full text of this article you pay:
£6.25 copyright fee + service charge (from £8.95) + VAT, if applicable

Managerial Finance

ISSN: 0307-4358
Online from: 1975
Subject Area: Accounting and Finance

Risk Analysis and Capital Budgeting Techniques of U.S. Multinational Enterprises

Document Information:
Risk Analysis and Capital Budgeting Techniques of U.S. Multinational Enterprises
Lawrence Peter Shao, (Fitchburg State College, Department of Business Administration, 160 Pearl Street, Fitchburg, Massachusettes 01420), Alan T. Shao, (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Belk College of Business Administration, Department of Marketing, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223)
Lawrence Peter Shao, Alan T. Shao, (1996) "Risk Analysis and Capital Budgeting Techniques of U.S. Multinational Enterprises", Managerial Finance, Vol. 22 Iss: 1, pp.41 - 57
Article type:
General review
10.1108/eb018542 (Permanent URL)
The purpose of this study is to examine the capital budgeting strategies that are used by foreign subsidiaries of U.S.-based multinational enterprises. While the results indicated a preference for sophisticated capital budgeting techniques as the primary method of analysis, the actual use of sophisticated capital budgeting techniques by foreign managers may not be as widespread as expected by financial theorists. Although it was found that certain environmental and company-specific factors influenced the level of sophistication of capital budgeting practices used by U.S. foreign subsidiaries, the associations were small and had only minor explanatory significance. The results showed that foreign subsidiaries exposed to high levels of political and financial risk tended to use sophisticated capital budgeting strategies. Subsidiaries characterized by high levels of financial leverage and high cost of capital requirements also employed advanced capital budgeting strategies. Multinational enterprises (MNEs) have many options available to them in terms of how they manage their foreign subsidiaries. Traditionally, most major policy decisions were made at the parent firm's headquarter office while foreign subsidiaries had few opportunities to influence major corporate decisions. Today, more companies are using a flexible approach which involves setting strategic goals at the home office and allowing local managers to implement their own specific policies. An important question in this study involved determining how effective local foreign managers were in implementing their capital budgeting processes. As U.S.-based MNEs continue to expand their operations abroad, there is an increased need to examine which financial decision models are actually used by subsidiary managers to deal with the increased complexity of investing in foreign countries. Unlike traditional capital budgeting analysis, international analysis is a considerably more complex process. These complexities occur for a number of reasons including complicated cash flows estimates, changes in foreign exchange rates, different accounting systems, potential for blocked funds, and political risk considerations. These factors are rarely experienced by traditionally domestic U.S. firms. To maintain a competitive edge, MNEs must continue to use the most efficient approaches available to them. This study provides a detailed analysis of the capital budgeting practices that are actually being used by foreign subsidiaries of U.S.-based MNEs. The paper is organized in the following manner. Section I provides a brief overview of the theoretical and practical issues of international capital budgeting analysis. Section II focuses on the areas of data collection, questionnaire design, and environment-specific and company-specific factors. Section III discusses usage of capital budgeting techniques, adjustment and assessment of project risk, and factors influencing capital budgeting policies. The final section presents some findings from this study.

Title: An exploratory investigation into NASCAR fan culture.
Journal: Sport Marketing Quarterly 2005 Vol. 14 No. 2 pp. 71-83
ISSN: 1061-6934
Record Number: 20053098358


Marketers are taking notice of NASCAR's cultural impact and the impressive financial returns to be garnered from investing in the sport. This work examines NASCAR fans and their sport-related attitudes and behaviours. Data were obtained from a sample of 666 NASCAR enthusiasts through a mail survey. Results suggest that there are two follower types, those who are deeply bonded to the sport, and those who are pledged to the sport but demonstrate comparatively less commitment to racing, NASCAR-related media, and sponsors' products. Managerial implications are discussed in terms of a relationship commitment metaphor.

Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising

Volume 26, Issue 2, 2004, pages 67-80Comparative Advertising Effectiveness: A Cross-Cultural Study

DOI: 10.1080/10641734.2004.10505165

Publishing models and article dates explained
Version of record first published: 08 May 2012


This study investigates the perceived effectiveness of comparative vs. non-comparative advertising in low- and high-context communication cultures. Perceived effectiveness of the ad was measured using two constructs: attitude toward the ad and persuasion effect. It is found that when evaluating direct comparative ads, consumers in low-context communication cultures indicated higher persuasion effect than those in high-context communication cultures. Furthermore, in low-context communication cultures the persuasion effect for direct comparative ads is greater than indirect comparative ads. However, counter to common belief, results also show that cultural context plays no role in differentiating consumers' attitudes toward comparative ads. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Journal of Euromarketing

Volume 2, Issue 3, 1993, pages 23-43

Restrictions on Advertising Items That May Not Be Considered "Decent":

A European Viewpoint

DOI: 10.1300/J037v02n03_03
Publishing models and article dates explained
Version of record first published: 18 Oct 2008


In the past, when products and issues that may not have been considered "decent" were advertised, selective avenues were used since barriers existed such as television networks forbidding the promotion of condoms and some pharmaceutical goods. But because of the spread of AIDS and the softening of network and magazine executives, some of these products are being shown or at least mentioned in the mass media. This 15 agency-160 European affiliate survey of advertising restrictions shows different degrees of limitations throughout Europe. While European agencies performing global advertising campaigns encountered the most restrictions, cigarettes and alcohol were the most restricted products throughout many regions of the world. This was not surprising considering the social pressures placed on the industries by consumer and governmental organizations.

Journal of Global Marketing

Volume 15, Issue 2, 2001, pages 5-29

Export Strategy and Performance

A Comparison of Exporters in a Developed Market and an Emerging Market

DOI: 10.1300/J042v15n02_02

Publishing models and article dates explained
Received: 01 Oct 2000
Accepted: 01 Feb 2001
Version of record first published: 11 Oct 2008


Emerging markets, such as those in East Asia, present many opportunities for international trade. Understanding the strategic marketing decisions of small and medium-sized exporters engaged in international trade with rapidly developing countries is critical for managers that trade or plan to trade in emerging economies. Utilizing a proposed framework, the results of a study examining and comparing strategic marketing decisions and factors that influence those decisions for exporters in a developed market (United States) with exporters in an emerging market (Korea) are presented. The findings show that exporters from Korea experienced more difficulties with strategic marketing decisions, such as developing a reputation and pricing, while exporters from the U. S. had more trouble adapting marketing strategies to market conditions. The Korean exporters also expected to achieve more from their exporting than the U. S. exporters. The results of the study have important implications for managers engaged in international trade with emerging economies.

Volume 34, Issue 6, August 2005, Pages 590–601
Rigidity versus Flexibility in Business Marketing
IMP 2005

Incumbents in a dynamic Internet related services market: Does customer and competitive orientation hinder or help performance?


The Internet challenges many incumbent firms to adapt their marketing strategies by developing and offering new products involving Internet technology. Existing literature on market orientation and performance of services suggests that market orientation, and its components, are likely to facilitate effective adaptation. In contrast, the marketing innovation literature suggests market orientation may be too reactive and inhibit effective adaptation. Our results suggest some merit to both perspectives. Client orientation hindered performance of Internet advertising services, while competitive orientation facilitated performance. In addition, limited support was found that suggested superior performance occurs in an environment with a diverse client base and clients possessing in-house capabilities that “compete” with agencies for Internet advertising services. Implications for incumbents pursuing product growth strategies via new, technology related services in dynamic environments are discussed.

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics

ISSN: 1355-5855
Online from: 1989
Subject Area: Marketing

Advertising Standardisation in The Asia Pacific Region: What Stands In The Way?

Document Information:
Advertising Standardisation in The Asia Pacific Region: What Stands In The Way?
Alan T. Shao, (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte), David S. Waller, (The University of Newcastle)

10.1108/eb010252 (Permanent URL)
This empirical study examined U.S. advertising agencies' practices in the Asia Pacific Region to decide whether they were following Theodore Levitt's advice to promote products and services the same way everywhere. Information regarding environmental factors and advertising strategy were gathered from 200 Asia Pacific Region affiliates of U.S. advertising agencies in 11 countries. It was found that in general, agencies were neither standardising nor customising their sales platforms and creative contexts. Instead they tended to utilise the adaptative approach--a strategy that is becoming viewed as the optimal approach by multinational ad agencies.

Journal of International Marketing Publication Info

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Agency Participants in Multicountry Advertising: A Preliminary Examination of Affiliate Characteristics and Environments

John S. Hill and Alan T. Shao

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335
Online from: 1983
Subject Area: Marketing

The Future of Sogo Shosha in a Global Economy

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The Future of Sogo Shosha in a Global Economy
International Marketing Review, Vol. 10 Iss: 5
Alan T. Shao, Paul Herbig
10.1108/02651339310050066 (Permanent URL)
The Japanese “sogo shosha” – Japanese General Trading Companies – have played a major role in the phenomenal growth of the Japanese economy. Throughout the century, sogo shosha have secured raw material import inputs and have marketed and manufactured high value-added exports of the Japanese economic machine. However, the twenty-first century is nearly here – along with its global interdependent economy. How will the sogo shosha respond and adapt to these new economic realities? Does the sogo shosha have a future? The answer is “Yes”, but some changes are necessary if the sogo shosha are to survive in the next century.

Marketing Intelligence & Planning

Online from: 1983
Subject Area: Marketing

What does marketing really mean to the Japanese?

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What does marketing really mean to the Japanese?
Alain Genestre, (Assistant Professor, Marketing in the Department of Management and Marketing, Graduate School of International Trade and Business Administration, Texas A&M International University.), Paul Herbig, (Professor, Marketing in the Department of Management and Marketing, Graduate School of International Trade and Business Administration, Texas A&M International University.), Alan T. Shao, (Assistant Professor of Marketing in the Department of Marketing, Belk College of Business Administration, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.)

10.1108/02634509510097801 (Permanent URL)
As the Japanese have catapulted themselves to become a supereconomic power, many reasons have been given regarding their rapid progression – one of which is the claim that they are the world's premier marketers. Certainly US marketers would argue this point. However, the unparalleled rise of Japanese auto manufacturers provides support for this thesis. What is the actual role of marketing in a Japanese corporation? How well are the Japanese versed in the development and implementation of marketing strategy? Is there really a difference between marketing practices used in the West and those implemented in Japan? Addresses these questions.

Journal of Global Marketing

Volume 5, Issue 1-2, 1991, pages 107-124

Joint Venture of Wholly-Own: Which Produces the Best Results in the Advertising Industry?

DOI: 10.1300/J042v05n01_08


American advertising agencies have been rapidly expanding their operations abroad in recent decades. During this time, they have taken adtvantage of foreign experitise by acquiring local agencies or establishing joint venture arrangements. In other cases they have gone abraod by boldly setting up their own operations. This 15 agency - 344 subsidiary survey of agencies' abilities and performances shows that in general, wholly-owned subsidiaries have outperformed joint venture arrangements in terms of market rankings and total billings. While wholly-owned subsidiaries performed more multicountry campaigns, in terms of their operations, no differences were found concerning their service offerings of number of global campaigns performed.

Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing

Volume 1, Issue 4, 1994, pages 3-30

American Keiretsu: Fad or Future

DOI: 10.1300/J033v01n04_02
Publishing models and article dates explained
Version of record first published: 13 Oct 2010


One of the major reasons for Japan’s economic success has been attributed to its Keiretsu system, the super-conglomerate of companies with interlocking directories and cross-equity ownerships that provides a ready market for member firms and financial stability. Many believe America should imitate Japan’s policies to become more competitive. What is a keiretsu? Can or should American companies imitate the keiretsu structure? What would an American Keiretsu equivalent look like and how would it function? This paper addresses these issues.

Total Quality Management & Business Excellence

Volume 18, Issue 5, 2007, pages 531-544

Building Brand Equity via Product Quality

DOI: 10.1080/14783360701240030

Publishing models and article dates explained
Version of record first published: 20 Jul 2007


A practical approach is proposed to building brand equity via product quality. It identifies the relevant marketing activities and determines the extent to which these activities contribute to brand equity. Specifically, the proposed brand equity model relates marketing activities to brand equity. This indicates a practical way to assess the importance and adequacy of a company's daily operation in contributing to its brand equity. The importance-efficiency mix further provides management with feasible suggestions on adjusting their marketing activities. Then, based on an importance-efficiency matrix, company resources can be adjusted to enhance brand equity. An empirical study with an insurance company was conducted to illustrate the proposed approach. Using this approach, the insurance company has successfully enhanced their brand equity. This clearly attests to the managerial value of the proposed approach. Research implications and future research avenues were discussed.

Journal of Multinational Finance Management

Volume 3, Issue 1-2, 1994, pages 95-109

Capital Budgeting Practices Employed by European Affiliates of U.S. Transnational Companies

DOI: 10.1300/J284v03n01_06


This paper empirically examines the capital budgeting practices used by European affiliates of US.-based transnational companies (TNCs). Unlike previous surveys that have contributed to the understanding of the capital budgeting process of transnationals, this study analyzes the capital budgeting practices that have been adopted by foreign affiliates. Although the results showed that foreign managers preferred to use sophisticated techniques as their primary method of analysis, the actual usage of these advanced capital budgeting techniques was not as popular as parent company managers perceived. It was also found that while European managers made use of sophisticated risk-assessment techniques, they did not make extensive use of sophisticated risk-adjustment techniques.

International Marketing Review

ISSN: 0265-1335

Marketing inside the dragon, despite China's bureaucracy

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Marketing inside the dragon, despite China's bureaucracy
Alan T. Shao, (Belk College of Business Administration, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA), Paul Herbig, (College of Business Administration and Graduate School of International Trade, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas, USA)

As more businesses invest in China, there will, of course, be increased marketing opportunities there. But while China's current government continues to encourage foreign investment, the future holds some political uncertainties. This vast country has the opportunity to become a supereconomic power, but its government must lead the way, and not scare off potential investors.

Marketing Intelligence & Planning

Japanese international marketing strategy

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Japanese international marketing strategy
Alain Genestre, (Assistant Professor in the Department of Management and Marketing, Graduate School of International Trade and Business Administration, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas.), Paul Herbig, (Assistant Professor in the Department of Management and Marketing, Graduate School of International Trade and Business Administration, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas.), Alan T. Shao, (Assistant Professor in the Department of Marketing, Belk College of Business Administration, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.)

10.1108/02634509510102183 (Permanent URL)
In the last 30 years, Japan has come from a second-rate status to the world's economic giant, leading the world in electronics, automobiles, steel, shipbuilding and virtually anything else to which she has set her mind. The Japanese aim was and still is to be world-class suppliers of the major high volume items in the largest international markets. This focus on middle- to lower-end volume markets made increased efficiency essential. The mentality of jimae shugi – Japan should be virtually self-sufficient in all important product areas – is as strong as ever. How did the Japanese become such superb marketers? What is their international marketing strategy? Examines the Japanese international marketing strategy from its evolution; and analyses its strengths and weaknesses in allowing Western corporations to be able to compete more effectively against it.

Journal of International Consumer Marketing

Volume 4, Issue 3, 1992, pages 5-16

Are Global Markets with Standardized Advertising Campaigns Feasible?

DOI: 10.1300/J046v04n03_02


This empirical study examined whether or not it is feasible to promote products the same way everywhere. This concern has been heavily debated since Levitt's (1983) call for globalized markets. Information regarding environmental factors and advertising strategy were gathered from 344 affiliates of U.S. advertising agencies in six major world regions. It was concluded that environments were too different to capitalize on advertising standardization; this perspective was echoed by practitioners when only a small percentage indicated that they standardized their multi-country campaigns.


Shifting Advertising Appeals in Taiwan

Nonconformity Advertising to Teens



Seeks to answer various questions by examining executive perceptions of the global market for advertising skills. Data were obtained from 344 United States agency affiliates in 51 different countries. Literature review; Methodology; Results; Discussion.

Public Relations in China: A Status Report

DOI: 10.1300/J098v01n04_04


Sice China opened its doors to foreign business in 1978, its economy has boomed with an annual growth rate of 13 percent in recent years. As market competition has become increasingly intense, the demand for public relations has rapidly escalated as a growing number of local and foreign businesses battle for a piece of the Chinese market. Because public relations is still in its infancy stage in China, there are vast opportunities there for local and for- eign image-building practitioners. The Chinese public relations industry is thriving and gaining in irnportanceimd those abroad are continuing to take notice.

Marketing Intelligence & Planning

American trading companies in the twenty-first century

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American American trading companies in the twenty-first century
Paul Herbig, (Texas A&M International University, Laredo, Texas, USA), Alan T. Shao, (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, North Carolina, USA)

10.1108/02634509710184866 (Permanent URL)
Japanese General Trading Companies or sogo shoshas have been instrumental in the phenomenal Japanese economic miracle of the last 40 years. In 1982, the USA passed the Export Trading Company Act to home grow its own sogo shoshas; to date the Act has been ineffective - yet the need remains. Examines what trading companies are and what functions they perform. Observes the steps that need to be taken to make them profitable and successful. Postulates that trading companies are an integral part of this country’s future.

Media Information Australia

Issue 71 (Feb 1994)

US Parent Agency Control: Advertising Agencies in Australia

Abstract: This empirical study examines US advertising agencies' practices in Australia to find out the extent to which parent offices communicated with their subsidiaries and were involved in running their operations. The findings, based on the responses from 30 Australian subsidiaries were that, although the US agencies were positioned to control their subsidiaries' operations through majority-ownership, and had some periodic contact with them, they did not actually influence them to any considerable extent.

Managerial Finance

ISSN: 0307-4358


Document Information:
Lawrence Peter Shao, (The University of Tampa), Alan T. Shao, (The University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Iftekhar Hasan, (New Jersey Institute of Technology)

10.1108/eb018618 (Permanent URL)
One important issue international firms must face involves the evaluation and control of credit risk. Many studies dealing with international credit management have focused on the practices used by multinational enterprises. In this study we take a different approach to this topic by analyzing the credit management decisions made by 188 U.S. foreign subsidiaries. We examine many aspects of the foreign subsidiary manager's credit policies including credit standards, credit terms, collection efforts and customer creditworthiness. The results of this study indicate that credit management practices of foreign subsidiaries are similar to those used by parent companies. In addition, the findings show that foreign managers generally use theoretically-preferred methods when making credit decisions.

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness

ISSN: 1059-5422


Document Information:
Alain Genestre, (Member of the Department of Mangement and Marketing at Texas A&M International University in Laredo, Texas.), Paul Herbig, (Professor in the Graduate School of Internaitonal Trade and Business Administration at Texas A&M International University in Laredo, Texas.), Alan T. Shao, (Member of the Department of Marketing in the Belk College of Business Administration at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, North Carolina.)

10.1108/eb060194 (Permanent URL)
As the Japanese economy has become increasingly international, the issue of keiretsu relations has become a focus of attention. Keiretsu is an indigenous feature of Japan's production and distribution systems that some say leads to unfair competitive practices, triggering intense discussions from the United States government. American businesses realize that a major reason for their failures in the Japanese market lies in the nature of Japanese business practices, as exemplified by exclusive keiretsu relations. However, like it or not, keiretsu related firms dominate Japanese economic life. If U.S. firms are to penetrate the market in the “land of the rising sun,” they must learn to successfully market to keiretsu-member Japanese firms. This paper shows how the present keiretsu system can be traced back to the culture of ancient Japan and is itself a revival of the modern zaibatsu system of business organizations which, for all practical purposes, it replaced after World War II and, paradoxically, while the occupation and restructuring of the country incumbed to its victorious foe, the United States.

Journal of Euromarketing

Volume 2, Issue 4, 1993, pages 7-24

U.S. Agency Control Over European Affiliates: An Exploratory Study in the Advertising Industry

DOI: 10.1300/J037v02n04_02


The relationship between U.S. parent advertising agencies and their European affiliates were examined, using information gathered from 160 respondents in 16 countries. It was found that parent agencies tended to position themselves to control their overseas affiliates' operations (through either total or majority-ownership) but did not actually influence (and thus control) their marketing activities. It was further revealed that several environmental factors, especially claims advertisers could make, played important roles in affecting the extent parent agencies influenced their affiliates.

International Journal of Commerce and Management

ISSN: 1056-9219
Online from: 1991
Subject Area: International Business


Document Information:

The dyadic relationship between U.S. parent advertising agencies and their foreign affiliates were examined, using information gathered from 344 respondents in 52 countries. Parent agencies tended to position themselves to control their overseas affiliates by either totally or majority owning their operations but did not significantly influence, and thus control, their marketing activities. Several environmental factors, particularly claims advertisers can make and hiring restrictions, likely played important roles that affected the extent parent agencies influenced their affiliates.