Saturday, April 30, 2011

Diane Ravitch on NPR's Fresh Air

"The whole purpose of federal law and state law
should be to help schools improve,
not to come in and close them down and say,
'We're going to start with a clean slate,'
because there's no guarantee that the
clean slate's going to be better than the old slate."

---Diane Ravitch

This from NPR:

Listen or Download here.
Former Assistant Secretary of Education Diane Ravitch was once an early advocate of No Child Left Behind, school vouchers and charter schools.

In 2005, she wrote, "We should thank President George W. Bush and Congress for passing the No Child Left Behind Act. ... All this attention and focus is paying off for younger students, who are reading and solving mathematics problems better than their parents' generation."

But four years later, Ravitch changed her mind.

"I came to the conclusion ... that No Child Left Behind has turned into a timetable for the destruction of American public education," she tells Fresh Air's Terry Gross. "I had never imagined that the test would someday be turned into a blunt instrument to close schools — or to say whether teachers are good teachers or not — because I always knew children's test scores are far more complicated than the way they're being received today."

On the Obama administration's Race to the Top program
"Race to the Top is an extension of No Child Left Behind. It contains all of the punitive features. It encourages states to have more charter schools. It said, when it invited proposals from states, that you needed to have more charter schools, you needed to have merit pay — which is a terrible idea — you needed to judge teachers by test scores, which is even a worse idea. And you need to be prepared to turn around low-performing schools. So this is what many state legislators adopted hoping to get money from Race to the Top. Only 11 states and the District of Columbia did get that money. These were all bad ideas. They were terrible ideas that won't help schools. They're all schools that work on the free-market model that with more incentives and competition, schools will somehow get better. And the turnaround idea is a particularly noxious idea because it usually means close the school, fire the principal, fire the staff, and then it sets off a game of musical chairs where teachers from one low-performing school are hired at another low-performing school."

Thursday, April 28, 2011

21 Signs You’re a 21st Century Teacher

This from Simple K12

Are you a 21st Century Teacher?

1. You require your students to use a variety of sources for their research projects…and they cite blogs, podcasts, and interviews they’ve conducted via Skype.

2. Your students work on collaborative projects…with students in Australia.

3. You give weekly class updates to parents…via your blog.

4. Your students participate in class…by tweeting their questions and comments.

5. You ask your students to study and create reports on a controversial topic…and you grade their video submissions.

6. You prepare substitutes with detailed directions…via Podcasts.

7. You ask your students to do a character/historical person study…and they create mock social media profiles of their character.

8. Your students create a study guide…working together on a group wiki.

9. You share lesson plans with your teacher friends…from around the globe.

10. Your classroom budget is tight…but it doesn’t matter because there are so many free resources on the web you can use.

11. You realize the importance of professional development…and you read blogs, join online communities, and tweet for self development.

12. You take your students on a field trip to the Great Wall of China…and never leave your classroom.

13. Your students share stories of their summer vacation…through an online photo repository.

14. You visit the Louvre with your students…and don’t spend a dime.

15. You teach your students not to be bullies…or cyberbullies.

16. You make your students turn in their cell phones before class starts…because you plan on using them in class.

17. You require your students to summarize a recent chapter…and submit it to you via a text message.

18. You showcase your students’ original work…to the world.

19. You have your morning coffee…while checking your RSS feed.

20. You are reading this.

21. You tweet this page, blog about it, “like” it, or email it to someone else…

CPE sets tuition ceilings for Ky universities

This from H-L:
The Council on Postsecondary Education has set maximums for tuition increases at state-funded colleges and universities.

The panel met Thursday in Elizabethtown and set a maximum tuition and fee increase of 6 percent for the University of Kentucky and the University of Louisville, 5 percent for comprehensive universities and 4 percent for the Kentucky Community and Technical College System.

The six comprehensive universities are Eastern Kentucky University, Kentucky State University, Morehead State University, Murray State University, Northern Kentucky University and Western Kentucky University.

Council officials said in a statement that the tuition increases were necessary to help offset cuts in state funding and expected increases in operating expenses and maintenance.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Attorney for boy found injured in Frayser bathroom blasts police handling of case

This from C-J:
An attorney representing a boy found injured in a bathroom at Frayser Elementary School last month said Tuesday that police have botched the investigation and failed to provide justice to the victim.

“We are extremely disappointed,” Teddy Gordon said. “We have tried everything to go forward.”

But a Louisville Metro Police spokesman said the department has been conducting dozens of interviews to piece together what happened. And while no final determination has been made, Sgt. Robert Biven said there is no definitive proof of foul play at this point.

On March 23, the second-grade boy was found in a locked bathroom stall hanging by his shirt collar on a hook on the back of the door. He was taken to Kosair Children's Hospital where he was hospitalized for several days before being released.

Gordon said the family believes the boy was assaulted by two fifth-graders and left to die...

“My fear is that there is a little bit of racial animus,” Gordon said, adding that a he believes a case involving a white student in eastern Louisville would have been handled more expeditiously...

[Louisville Metro Police spokesman Sgt. Robert] Biven said detectives still are working to figure out what happened, having interviewed several students and teachers at the school, and he said they are waiting on some medical reports they hope might provide some answers.Gordon said he believes school personnel are “circling the wagons” and the whole story is not being told. He said rather than wait for police to do something, he is trying to determine whether there are any legal steps that can be taken...

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Who Pays Teachers Best for their Time?

This from the Future Journalism Project:

The biggie version of this infographic also includes: how much teachers around the world make (Luxembourgh tops), average class size (Mexico tops… or bottoms if you will) and salary levels vs student achievement (Finland tops).

Friday, April 22, 2011

Is the National School Turnaround Effort Really Organizing Schools For Improvement?

This from the folks at Broader Bolder:
Major federal education legislation, such as No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, promote top-down, formulaic “turnaround” strategies and school closures that identify schools as failing based on standardized test scores. This study of Chicago’s experiment with major school reform between 1988 and 1996 shows, however, that a strategy focused on firing teachers or replacing principals cannot turn around schools that face multiple obstacles. And real change takes time.

As Anthony Bryk and his colleagues at the Consortium on Chicago School Research discovered through a combination of rigorous statistical analyses and school case studies, five “essential elements” are necessary for schools to make real progress. These involve collaboration among teachers, parents, and students, are driven by strong principals, and require trust and community engagement. Moreover, schools serving students living in hardest circumstances must leverage a range of resources and supports, including physical and mental health care and meals, in order to move forward. In sum...a Broader Bolder range of approaches to education must be tried and adapted.

Release: Friday, May 20, 2011

Anthony Bryk, President, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, former chaired professor of education and business, Stanford University and University of Chicago, creator of the Consortium on Chicago School Research, and author, Organizing Schools for Improvement; Lessons from Chicago.

From the Nation's Cartoonists

These from Signe Wilkinson at Slate:This from Gary Varvel:This from Jeff Danziger:This from Walt Handlesman:This from Drew Sheneman:

Bullied Middle Schoolers, Paige Moravetz and Haylee Fentress, Take Lives In Suicide Pact

This from the Huffington Post:
Family members admit that the signs were there.

After repeatedly indicating that they were bullied and felt ostracized, Paige Moravetz and Haylee Fentress took their lives at a sleepover in what family members believe was a suicide pact.

Moravetz's cousin Hillary Settle tells the TODAY Show that Fentress had posted a telling status update directed at Moravetz on Facebook shortly before their deaths:

"I'm so nervous and I just want to get it over with. I love you, Paige."

The two eighth graders from southwestern Minnesota hanged themselves at a sleepover Friday night at Fentress' house. Her mother discovered their bodies Saturday morning, according to the TODAY Show.

Moravetz, a hockey star remembered for her big smile, and Fentress, a newcomer to Minnesota with a bubbly personality, were best friends.

Still, Fentress had sent her relatives Facebook messages describing how hard it was to have recently moved from Indiana, saying that she was sad and lonely. Those close to her say that she was teased about her weight and her red hair.

Settle tells the TODAY Show:

"Maybe we should have paid closer attention. Maybe everyone should have paid closer attention."...

Thursday, April 21, 2011

More Ed. Schools Backing Out of NCTQ Review

The National Council on Teacher Quality posted its grading criteria rece to address concerns among education school deans that the review wouldn’t be transparent or accurate. It also plans to supplement the content-based analysis at the heart of its methodology with information on candidate classroom performance culled from “value added” data. But it's doubtful that that will allay fears over NCTQ's shoddy methodology.

KSN&C Backstory

This from Teacher Beat:
Public higher education institutions in Wisconsin, Georgia, Kentucky, and New York—and possibly other states—will not participate voluntarily in a review of education schools now being conducted by the National Council for Teacher Quality and U.S. News and World Report, according to recent correspondence between state consortia and the two groups.

In response, NCTQ and U.S. News are moving forward with plans to obtain the information from these institutions through open-records requests.

In letters to the two organizations dated March 28 and March 16, respectively, the president of the University of Wisconsin system and the chancellor of Georgia's board of regents said their public institutions would opt out of the review, citing a lack of transparency and questionable methodology, among other concerns.

Also on March 16, the presidents, provosts, and education school deans of public universities in Kentucky wrote in a letter to the research and advocacy group and the news magazine that they won't "endorse" the review. Phillip Rogers, the executive director of Kentucky's Education Professional Standards Board, confirmed to me that this means the state will comply with public-records requests, but it isn't voluntarily handing over information.

Finally, the chancellor of the State University of New York system, Nancy Zimpher, sent a letter April 20 stating that she will direct system officials that they "need not participate" in the review.

The situation is murkier in Maryland, Colorado, and California, where public university officials have sent letters to NCTQ and U.S. News requesting changes to the review process, but haven't yet declined to take part willingly...

To date, NCTQ has sent requests for information and public-records requests to institutions in Colorado, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The states have thus far been quite cooperative, according to NCTQ's director for the project.

The recent action is in addition to separate letters raising concerns about the review sent by state associations of teacher education colleges. These associations typically count both public and private colleges of education as members. NCTQ and U.S. News have received letters from the Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Ohio, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Virginia chapters. They appear to be leaving the decision to take part up to their member institutions, in much the same way that the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education is doing.

You can read some of the correspondence on NCTQ's new "transparency central" website. It lists the number of participating institutions in each state and the number of institutions in the state to which the council has submitted an open-records request...

There are a couple of related issues worth teasing out here. One has to do with an emerging subtext about which standards really matter for teacher preparation and how institutions should be measured against those standards. Several of the letters from the states reference state-approval standards, regional accreditation standards, (voluntary) teacher education accreditation standards, and the standards promulgated by the Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium. Many of those standards have been put together by the education field, as in other professions, these officials argue, and are based on research and consensus about good teaching,

NCTQ, in general, contends that such standards are too vague—and in any case, points to the fact that few institutions have failed to meet them over the years.

We'll soon have upgraded sets of standards to debate: Two teacher education accreditation bodies are merging and plan to upgrade their standards. And the Council of Chief State School Officers is finalizing a new version of the InTASC standards. So expect more on this topic to come.

Second, the transparency question seems worthy of additional attention. Should private institutions that produce public employees, like teachers, participate in these kinds of reviews?

And here's a question for NCTQ and U.S. News: What's incumbent upon them to release? They've released the indicators for each of the review's standards but won't release the scoring guide, something several of the school groups have requested.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

Quick Hits

How budget cuts are affecting teacher training: Officials with Wisconsin education schools say budget cuts and other changes affecting the teaching profession may prompt modifications in how they prepare teachers. Larger class sizes mean teachers must prepare lessons for as many as 40 students of varying abilities, while many teacher colleges are left with fewer resources to train would-be educators for such tasks. Layoffs also are making potential teachers leery of entering the profession and enrollment in some education programs has dropped. (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel)

Group-reading instruction is tested at two Denver schools:
At two Denver middle schools, students are working in groups as part of a new technique in reading instruction called collaborative strategic reading. The students are each assigned a task in the group that addresses different aspects of reading comprehension. The method -- expected to expand to other Denver middle schools -- is seen as particularly beneficial for students who are English-language learners or who have learning disabilities, but it has been shown to be effective with all students. (The Denver Post)

Pennsylvania educators question emphasis on testing: Some educators in Pennsylvania are questioning the increasing emphasis being placed on high-stakes standardized testing at the expense of instruction in subjects such as social studies and art. Even when schools meet federal testing benchmarks, educators say students may not be fully prepared for college or careers. Others say the tests penalize students in impoverished areas, where students do not have access to the same educational opportunities. (The Patriot-News)

Leadership program improves achievement at struggling Boston schools: Student achievement is improving at two struggling Boston schools as a result of a year-old initiative that seeks to recruit and retain top teachers, officials say. The Turnaround Teacher Teams program offers additional pay and leadership opportunities for teachers in low-performing schools, and the teachers work together to improve student achievement and the school community. Officials say the program is providing insights into how teachers contribute to school turnarounds. (Education Week)

Race to the Top sparks innovation at local, state levels: The federal Race to the Top grant program, known for its emphasis on large-scale school reforms, also has led to funding for numerous local and state initiatives that aim to take innovative approaches to school improvement. Efforts include a new method for planning classroom lessons being implemented at a Florida high school, the development in Maryland of a new elementary teaching certificate in science, technology, engineering and math, plus efforts to boost teacher recruitment and support in Georgia. (Education Week)

High-school students want more career guidance, poll shows: Most young adults between ages 18 to 24 give high schools poor marks when it comes to preparing them for college and the workforce, according to a poll by The Associated Press and Viacom. Many students said their schools did not provide enough guidance in helping them choose a career path or college and did not provide enough information on securing financial assistance. (The Associated Press)

How technology helps some universities personalize large classes: As class sizes rise in some universities in Ontario, Canada, professors are finding new ways to personalize lessons, often using technology. One professor says he offers students MP3 files with comments on their assignments. Another posts lectures online with links to videos and animation, while teaching assistants answer questions that are e-mailed throughout the day. (The Toronto Star)

Dispelling myths about math: Some teachers in Canada and England are successfully using a program called Jump Math to improve math learning -- in part by assuming that all students can excel at math. Because students who struggle in math typically have poor memories and difficulty with word problems, teachers walk students through each step -- no matter how small. The developer of the curriculum says students' initial success will increase their math confidence, motivating them to learn more. (The New York Times - The Opinionator blog)

Schools struggle to offer deeper understanding of Civil War history: The Civil War is seen by historians as a defining moment in the history of the U.S., and experts say schools play an important role in helping students understand the the conflict's causes, meaning and impact, which still are the subject of public debate. Educators say most textbooks now do an adequate job of covering the Civil War, which began 150 years ago this month. However, time may be the biggest challenge for teachers as they decide what aspects of the conflict to cover and what to omit. (Education Week)

Massachusetts looks to N.H. on plan to reduce dropouts: Massachusetts officials are considering raising the school-dropout age to 18, a change that helped New Hampshire cut its dropout rate in half last year. "What we've done is set a goal for all students to graduate and it really has been embraced at the local level," New Hampshire Gov. John Lynch said. Massachusetts officials are working to find funding and create more programs to support at-risk students and stem the statewide dropout rate of 2.9%. (The Boston Globe)

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Group Launches Petition Drive on Superintendent Search

Among the input provided the Fayette County Board of Education in their search for a new superintendent is an online petition. A new group calling itself the Fayette Advocates for Balance in the Classroom™ (FayetteABC™) has launched a petition drive in hopes of influencing the board in their choice of superintendent.

FayetteABC was founded by Erik and Cheryl Myrup and other Fayette County Public School parents "concerned that test-driven instruction could compromise the quality of education in our public schools." They note that no FayetteABC founding members have ever been employees of Fayette County Public Schools.
We are residents of Fayette County, Kentucky who are concerned that our public schools have become too focused on standardized testing at the expense of Kentucky's broader educational goals, which include preparing students for future employment and adult life.

Our petition asks the Fayette County Board of Education to keep these concerns in mind as they choose a new superintendent and pursue their own goals as a board.
FayetteABC describes their core beliefs saying:
  • Public education should have the broad goal of preparing students to be successful in future employment and adult life.
  • Standardized tests provide useful but incomplete measures of how well schools are preparing students to meet these goals.
  • When classroom instruction focuses primarily on tested content and mimics standardized test formats, it deprives students of many of the most rigorous, lasting, and inspiring learning opportunities.
The FayetteABC website provides answers to frequently asked questions, information about relevant Kentucky data and laws, and related research and reading. Here's the FayetteABC Facebook page.

Here's the petition:
To: Fayette County Board of Education

We are concerned that our schools have become too focused on standardized testing at the expense of Kentucky's broader educational goals, which include preparing students for future employment and adult life. Please keep this concern in mind as you choose a new superintendent and pursue your own goals as a board.

We urge you to take a balanced approach to meeting educational goals. This approach should be informed by data from mandated standardized tests, but should focus squarely on ensuring that students have access to rigorous, relevant, rich instruction.

What are some signs of a system that is out of balance?

* Students spend too much time taking standardized tests and practicing skills in a testing format

* Teachers report less time for teaching students to apply concepts, solve problems, and think critically and creatively

* Teachers and principals are under more pressure to raise scores on standardized tests than they are to use teaching methods likely to promote deep understanding and love of learning; teachers committed to such methods may be frustrated and demoralized

* Standardized test achievement is considered the goal of learning

* Subjects not tested for state and federal accountability systems receive inadequate attention

Superintendents, board members, and school personnel may all be feeling more pressure to demonstrate success on standardized tests than to monitor the unintended consequences of a test-driven system. That is why we are making our concerns known. We acknowledge and thank the many Fayette County teachers, administrators, and board members who work hard every day to ensure that our children do have rigorous, engaging, and varied learning opportunities beyond what is necessary for success on standardized tests. We realize that these efforts are not always recognized publicly, but they are preparing our children to be successful in life.

We believe that all of us truly want what is best for our children, and we expect our elected officials and our next superintendent to have the courage and the vision necessary to take a balanced approach...


The Undersigned
Those inclined can join the drive and add their names here.

Monday, April 18, 2011

When Bad Teachers Grade Students

This largely from Living in Dialogue:

Have you ever had that experience - where somebody asks you a question and you fumble the answer, only to clarify your thinking hours later? "I wish I'd said that instead."

Superintendent John Kuhn of the Perrin-Whitt Independent School District in Texas had the experience recently when he testified before the Public Ed. Committee of the Texas House of Representatives on behalf of a bill that would initiate a two-year moratorium on standardized testing.

He opened by saying,
I have a dilemma: I personally believe state testing is morally compromised because TEA has overwrought test security to the point that it is a parody of big government interference and micromanagement, because testing has turned the adventure of education into something that feels more like an assembly line, because Austin has nudged our teachers from behind their podiums and has said Pearson can assess better than they can, because student creativity is being sacrificed in favor of standardization, because scores are used to unfairly punish schools and teachers that embrace the neediest students, and because test scores have been used during the past five years to drive a labeling process that has systematically concealed the fact that some schools are comparatively underfunded. Is a high target revenue "recognized" school really any better than a low target revenue "acceptable" school? Texas has published these labels with no mention of funding disadvantages, leaving the public to assume underperforming schools do so for no other reason than they are less competent institutions. I'm worried STAAR will continue this kind of railroading of our local schools.

So my dilemma is this: I would prefer that my son not participate in this test, to avoid the weaponization of his data, and the perversion of his education. People say ending testing will water down education. I see test prep as watering down education. But as a superintendent, my school needs my son's score to help my school's rating--assuming he will pass. My board would likely not appreciate it if I held my son out of testing. I haven't decided what I will do.
After Kuhn said we should treat teachers like we want them to treat students, a representative made what Kuhn called a very straightforward and honest point: teachers give students grades all the time...why shouldn't they be graded?

He stumbled on his answer, but later that night, unable to sleep, he came up with what was bothering him about the whole thing. He imagined how he should have answered.
Representative, you make a good point. The state has adopted the role of teacher, and teachers are the students. And this is the root of the problem--you are a bad teacher, and that is why we students are getting rowdy now. That is why we are passing notes to one another saying how mean you are. We are not upset that you grade us. We are upset that your grading system is arbitrary and capricious. We are upset at the way you hang our grades on the wall for everyone to see, instead of laying our papers face down on our desks when you pass them back. We are upset because when you treat us unfairly there is no principal we can go to, to report you for being unjust. There is no one but you and us, ruler and ruled. Your assignments are so complicated and sometimes seem so pointless. You never give us a break, never a free day or a curve. And we heard you in the teacher's lounge talking about how lazy we are. You stay behind your desk, only coming out to give us work or gripe at us. You never come to our games; you didn't ask me how I did in the one-act-play.

Representative Hochberg, the problem isn't that Texas wants to grade us; the problem is that Texas is THAT teacher, the one who punishes the whole class for the misbehaviors of a few bad apples, who worries more about control than relationships, who inadvertently treats all kids as if they are the problem kids. This approach has made you the teacher all the kids dread. The one who builds fear instead of trust, who never takes late work or asks how our weekend was. You are the teacher and we are the student, and if you want us to mind, you should create a happy classroom, work with us, relate to us, build trust with us, seek our input, and ask our opinions once in awhile. Give us choices. Give us room to experiment and permission to risk new things in your classroom, permission to try and fail without disappointing you.

Thanks Mikey

Fayette Board Seeks Public Input

Your First Chance Starts Tonight

All community members are invited to provide input to the search consulting firm hired to recruit the next schools chief. Through public forums and online surveys, we hope to hear from a wide cross section of stakeholders.

Make your voice heard at one of five meetings, each hosted by a different community group at one of Fayette County’s five high schools. Everyone, regardless of where they live in Fayette County, is welcome to attend any meeting that is convenient. Please help us spread the word to everyone you know.

All forums are slated for 7 p.m.:

Monday April 18 at Bryan Station High School in the auditorium, hosted by the United Way of the Bluegrass.
Monday April 18 at Tates Creek High School in the library, hosted by the Lexington Public Library.

Tuesday April 19 at Henry Clay High School in the auditorium, hosted by the Equity Council.

Tuesday April 19 at Lafayette High School in the auditorium, hosted by Commerce Lexington.

Wednesday April 20 at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in the cafeteria, hosted by the 16th District PTA.

Online survey

Beginning Tuesday April 19, an online survey will be available here for interested community members to submit their input.


Weekend Shout Outs

It was a busy weekend at EKU and I wanted to give a shout out to a few folks.

First, congratulations to Stephanie Bell on the near-completion and presentation of her Honor's Thesis, Education Reform: Charter Schools in Kentucky? As her thesis adviser, it was great to meet her parents at the Honor's Banquet Friday night along with about 100 other honor's students. Famous Kentucky author and former "merry prankster" Ed McClanahan was on hand to read to the group from his latest, O the Clear Moment. It was a hoot.

I met with Bill Ellis to begin planning a September symposium on the History of Education in Kentucky to coincide with the release of Ellis's book of the same title. The book was slated to be released in the fall, but I hear it has been pushed forward and is already at the printers. We may see it as early as May. EKU's PR guy Marc Whit led the meeting. Also involved are historian Lindsey Apple, KET's Bill Goodman and folks from EKU Media, WEKU radio, and former Cassidy kid Camron Ludwick, now all grown up and working as a marketing assistant for the University Press of Kentucky, Ellis's publisher. Gary and Carol should be very proud of their daughter.

Then on Saturday, I put on my principal hat again and made a couple of anti-bullying presentations to future teachers from colleges and universities across Kentucky. The Kentucky Education Association-Student Program held it's Student Assembly here Friday and Saturday. The students had asked for professional development sessions on bullying and EKU-SP President Dominic McCamish asked me to provide it. Thus, I did two sessions titled, "Teachers Standing Against Bullying." The interactive sessions, using "clickers," reviewed a few recent cases where bullying had tragic consequences, outlined federal and state law and considered local board policy using Fayette County policies on bullying and harassment as a model. It provided tips for teachers and a strong recommendation that anti-bullying needed to be a faculty-wide effort. It is very hard for an individual teacher to be successful in reducing bullying if the overall school culture permits it.

For those students who requested my notes, you can find them here.

Then, there was yard work on Sunday.

Sorry for the light blogging lately. Advising season is just now coming to a close and I expect to catch up on a handful of topics that have been gathering dust for the past month.

I can confirm two more cases pending in Fayette County, but I haven't been able to read the files yet. Patton v Silberman and Jones v Silberman both carry 08 case numbers; 08CI02053 and 08CI03343 respectively. A KSN&C reader says there is also a case pending that names Fayette County Board Chair John Price, but I haven't been able to get to the court house to confirm that yet either.

Stay tuned.

Thursday, April 14, 2011

AdvanceKentucky Adds 20 New High Schools

Announces 20 New High Schools to Participate
in the National Math and Science Initiative
AP Teacher Training and Incentive Program

AdvanceKentucky Announces 20 New High Schools to Participate in the National Math and Science Initiative AP Teacher Training and Incentive Program

Twenty new high schools are joining AdvanceKentucky, bringing to 64 the number of high schools that are implementing the AP Teacher Training and Incentive Program (APTIP). This successful program involves content-rich teacher training and extensive support and incentives for students and teachers for achieving qualifying scores on Advanced Placement (AP)* exams in math, science and English.

AdvanceKentucky is funded by a $13.2 million grant from the National Math and Science Initiative (NMSI), which is supported by ExxonMobil, Dell and Gates Foundations, Lockheed and others. Kentucky sponsors include the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) including $500,000 for expansion to new schools during the 11-12 school year, Council on Postsecondary Education, and Kentucky Science and Technology Corporation. AdvanceKentucky has received federal grants from Appalachian Regional Commission and US Department of Education through KDE.

The NMSI model has demonstrated its proven ability in Kentucky schools to dramatically increase access to and accelerate learning in rigorous math, science and English (MSE) courses, as shown by qualifying scores on AP exams, particularly among underrepresented student populations. On the most recent 2010 AP exams, the 28 AdvanceKentucky schools alone contributed 43 percent of all new qualifying scores (QS) earned across Kentucky and 69 percent of new QS earned by minority students. These early participants performed at up to 12 times the national rate of one-year growth in student performance.

The 20 high schools named for Cohort 4 are: Allen County Scottsville, Apollo, Bell County, Betsy Layne, Bracken County, Campbell County, Glasgow, Daviess County, Hancock County, Jackson County, Jenkins, Knox Central, Lynn Camp, Marshall County, Mayfield, McLean County, Metcalfe County, Owen County, Pikeville, and Washington County.

The student profile of Cohort 4 high schools includes 53 percent free and reduced lunch (ranging from 24 percent to 85 percent) and five percent minority (African American and Hispanic ranging from less than one percent to 37 percent). Projected math, science and English AP enrollments for 11/12 school year anticipate an increase of 140 percent above 10/11 figures before entering the program.

These 64 participating schools are in 52 school districts, involving 480 AP teachers and over 17,000 AP MSE enrollments in the 11/12 school year. At least 440 MSE AP courses are planned for the 11/12 school year in calculus, statistics, computer science, biology, chemistry, physics, environmental science, English Language and English Literature
In addition to the 20 new schools named for Cohort 4, the 44 high schools currently participating in AdvanceKentucky are: Anderson County, Barren County, Bellevue, Bourbon County, Bowling Green, Bryan Station, Carroll County, Christian County, Clay County, Corbin, East Jessamine, Franklin County, Franklin-Simpson, George Rogers Clark, Graves County, Harrison County, Heath, Henderson County, Highlands, Holmes, Hopkins County Central, Hopkinsville, Johnson Central, Lone Oak, Madisonville Martha Layne Collins, Mercer County, North Hopkins, Marion County, Montgomery County, North Laurel, Paintsville, Perry County Central, Powell County, Pulaski County, Reidland, Scott County, Shelby County, South Laurel, Southwestern, Trigg County, Warren Central, Warren East, Western Hills, and West Jessamine. All 64 schools participating in the 11-12 school year are depicted on the map.

In recognition of the national importance placed on the success of NMSI-APTIP, last week ExxonMobil launched a national ad campaign during the ESPN/CBS-TV Sports coverage of the 2011 Masters Golf Tournament spotlighting students and teachers from across the country who are participating in APTIP, including AdvanceKentucky. The new commercials feature compelling profiles of AP students and teachers as well as video footage filmed on location at schools around the country. These ads and more stories of students and teachers in the APTIP program can be found at

“This is an extraordinary boost for math and science education,” said Tom Luce, CEO of the National Math and Science Initiative (NMSI). “We are grateful to ExxonMobil for devoting all of its commercial spots during this high-audience event to showcase our program. These spots will go a long way toward raising awareness of how critically important it is to bring college-level math and science courses to more young Americans.”

Schools interested in applying to AdvanceKentucky for participation in Cohort 5 may visit for application materials or email Joanne Lang at for more information.

SOURCE: AdvanceKentucky Press release

State Board Approves Accountability Regulation

At its regular meeting on Wednesday, the Kentucky Board of Education approved the state regulation that defines the first component of the state’s new accountability system for public schools.

The new regulation – 703 KAR 5:200 – outlines the Next-Generation Learners component of the overall accountability system mandated by 2009’s Senate Bill 1. The regulation provides details on how student test results, efforts to close achievement gaps, student academic progress, college/career readiness and graduation rates will be used to gauge public schools and school districts.

The board made a few minor changes to the regulation, which now moves through the standard process for approval of all state regulations.

The board heard discussion of another new state regulation (703 KAR 5:220) that outlines how schools and districts will be classified under the new accountability system. The regulation also provides guidelines related to support for struggling schools. The board will continue discussion of this regulation at its June meeting.

The board also discussed content for a regulation related to Program Reviews and heard information about the expansion of the AdvanceKentucky program.

The board took the following actions:

  • voted to approve a resolution supporting the Commonwealth Commitment to College and Career Readiness Pledge

  • agreed to uphold Education Commissioner Terry Holliday’s decision related to the disbanding of the Christian County High School school-based decision making council

  • approved the appointment of (Ms.) Dana Guyton of Louisville as an at-large member of the Kentucky High School Athletics Board of Control

  • approved a request for an alternative school-based decision making council model for Mt. Sterling Elementary in Montgomery County

  • approved the selection of EdisonLearning and Mosaica Turnaround Partners as external management organizations, as enabled by KRS 160.346 for assistance to low-performing schools

  • approved the Kenton County Board of Education’s request for a waiver of a section of state regulation 704 KAR 3:340, which outlines criteria for the Commonwealth Diploma

  • approved the Paducah Independent Board of Education’s request for a waiver of a section of 704 KAR 3:305, which outlines the minimum requirements for high school graduation

The board heard an appeal of the commissioner’s decision related to the 2011-12 nonresident student agreement between the Harlan County and Harlan Independent school districts. After presentations from both districts, discussion and deliberation, the board agreed to uphold the commissioner’s decision on this issue.

The board heard presentations and had discussions on these items:

  • recommendations from the Governor’s Transforming Education in Kentucky Task Force

  • 2010-2012 biennial budget

  • 2011 elementary and secondary legislation

  • state regulation 702 KAR 6:110, Claim Reimbursement for School and Community Nutrition

  • an audit update and review of the commissioner’s and board’s expenses

  • state regulation 704 KAR 3:340, Locally Awarded Certificates of Merit (formerly Commonwealth Diploma Program)

The Kentucky Board of Education’s next regular meeting is scheduled for June 8 in Frankfort. The board will hold a work session on June 7 at 1 p.m. in Frankfort.

SOURCE: KDE Press release

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

State Rep. Dewayne Bunch critically injured trying to break up fight at school

This from the Herald-Leader:
Whitley County High School teacher and state Rep. Dewayne Bunch was critically injured Tuesday when he was knocked unconscious after trying to break up a fight between two students in the school cafeteria, authorities said.

Bunch was knocked down by a punch that appeared to be aimed at another student, Whitley County Sheriff Colan Harrell said. Bunch, 49, hit his head on a tile floor, the sheriff said.

"He ran over there very quickly and ran right into the punch," Harrell said. "When his head hit the floor, he sustained more injury."

Bunch was in "extremely critical" condition at Baptist Regional Medical Center in Corbin before being taken to University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center in Lexington. A UK spokeswoman said Bunch's family had asked that no information be released about his condition...

Monday, April 11, 2011

NCTQ Method Stirs Backlash from Ed Schools

Sorry for the formatting on this long piece. Something has changed at Blogger or with IE and it has gone C R A Z Y. Richard

Instead of making an open records request, last week, I found myself responding to one. The request for my course syllabi came from the National Council on Teacher Quality a Bush-era education non-profit, established for the purpose of opposing, or "countering," traditional teacher organizations and current structure of the profession.

So, who are we talking about here?

NCTQ was one of a handful of groups, partly funded by government grants, whose advocacy for certain Bush policies through Op-Eds and other publicity, came under scrutiny for failing to follow the anti-propaganda rules. According to the Department of Education's Office of Inspector General report on Department PR expenditures from 2002 - 2004, NCTQ and the Oquirrh Institute (which former Ed Sec Margaret Spellings apparently paired) received $677,318 to "increase the American public's exposure and understanding of the research and full spectrum of ideas on teacher quality." In 2005, the Office of the Inspector General for the U.S. Department of Education called the NCTQ grant into question on a couple of counts. First, the unsolicited grant to NCTQ had been approved although two out of three reviewers had recommended against it. Secondly, NCTQ president Kate Walsh had run Op-E ds without including the legally required EDGAR disclosure to protect against covert propaganda.

The Inspector General raised two principal concerns:

  • "The failure of these grantees to include the required disclaimer appears to have resulted in an improper expenditure of grant funds that should now be recovered.

  • We did find…that the level of involvement by the Office of the Secretary in the initial approval of these unsolicited proposals and the oversight of these grants raised some concerns.

Oh great. Is this just another political group, posing as something it isn't, while looking to do a hatchet-job on the profession?

Walsh has a little history herself. NCTQ was a spinoff of the Education Leaders Council, a conservative-leaning group of education officials that also got the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence (ABCTE) started in 2001, and was labeled a "high-risk grantee" for its questionable handling of millions of dollars in federal grants. See SourceWatch for lots more on NCTQ.

Questions about the proposed NCTQ "research" methodology for assessing teacher prep programs have been percolating for more than a year. In an April 29, 2010 in the Chronicle of Higher Education article concerns were raised.

"The report in question is an assessment of teacher education programs. Yet, there is no explicit attention to the core concepts of assessment: validity and reliability. Further, there is no literature review establishing a basis for what comprises an appropriate and effective teacher education program and many key assertions in the report are unsupported by citations from the teacher education literature. The report was apparently not peer reviewed, being published by its authors and their sponsoring agency, not by a reputable journal. There is also evidence that those conducting this report subscribe to a contentious, narrow view of reading and how it should be taught…"

According to the NCTQ method, Teacher Beat reported, each school will be reviewed against 19 standards and graded on 17 of them. These standards have been revised and reduced in number since NCTQ did its review of Illinois and Texas education schools, last year, essentially a "field test" for the larger project. Alternative routes to teacher certification will be included in the review, but it won't include Teach For America or district-created programs that operate independently of ed. schools.

Penelope Peterson, the dean of the School of Education and Social Policy at Northwestern University and a participant in the NCTQ field test in Illinois said,

"There is nothing wrong with rating schools as long as the rankings are transparent and accurate. I would call it a Consumer Reports approach to rating teacher education. I don't think in any way you could call this a sophisticated research study."

Peterson has first-hand knowledge of the NCTQ process and her experience is revealing. Northwestern ranked highest out of 111 programs during the Illinois evaluation and was the only school to receive an A. But the rating was only given after granting NCTQ more access.

"Basically, we would have failed for the standards if we hadn't presented additional data and argued with them. If they just used the public data — for example, whatever they could find on our website — it would have been very inaccurate and misleading."

So cooperating, arguing, and providing information beyond that used in the paper-review process NCTQ will use for the vast majority of Ed schools (including those in Kentucky) was necessary for the prestigious Northwestern to go from an F to an A.

Kentucky is not cooperating. It would seem that Kentucky is already screwed.

For example, NCTQ rates schools based on their "value-added," or effectiveness of education students in the classroom after they graduate, Peterson told the Daily Northwestern. While states like Florida track these statistics, Illinois does not. Neither does Kentucky, and there are very serious concerns about the validity of such data to begin with.

"I don't know where all my students are that have graduated from our school, and, furthermore, I don't have access to their student achievement scores. So we got a zero on it."

Flunking states that are unable to provide the particular data NCTQ believes is important (without regard for local control) is unfair to schools, and when it produces a knowingly false result, which is then reported, it is dishonest.

It would seem that Walsh has already made up her mind (a red flag for bias and pseudoscience) and all that remains is to discredit the schools.

Kenneth Teitelbaum, the Dean of the College of Education and Human Services at Southern Illinois University Carbondale drew a clear analogy to demonstrate this problem in Group's Report Poorly Done, Lacking in Data:

Imagine an organization that decides to assess doctor preparation by establishing its own standards rather than those embraced by the American Medical Association. Or something similar for lawyers, engineers, nurses, police officers, etc. This is what NCTQ does. Whatever our own major professional associations subscribe to, or whatever the research shows, NCTQ assumes its own standards and then assesses our programs based on them. In addition, they do no direct observations of practice, no interviewing of students and school and community partners, and very little follow up of the factual errors that we call to their attention. They simply look at course syllabi, our website and the University catalog, all very limited indicators of what actually takes place in our courses and field experiences and intended as such. How can one come to grand conclusions about the quality of an elementary education or special education program from such limited information? Apparently NCTQ thinks you can. In my view, and those of my colleagues, their efforts would not be sufficient to pass an undergraduate research course.

As pointed out at the Quick and The Ed, NCTQ evaluation completely fails to assess what teachers know and can do. It does not look at how, or whether, what teachers do impacts student learning. Rather, judgments appear to be based on what content is included in course syllabi. How the syllabi are reviewed, coded, or rated is not apparent. There is little evidence that the content NCTQ is looking for on syllabi affects teacher effectiveness.

Among the remaining concerns: The methods that NCTQ will use; the perception that NCTQ is biased against colleges of education and against teacher education; The NCTQ ratings will not be based on what teacher candidates learn in their programs; The survey does not meet standards of high-quality research; concerns over prior NCTQ surveys of teacher education (in Illinois and Texas); The NCTQ does not rely on other professional consensus documents for the standards it is using.

In short, the survey is not research, and its "methods" do not seem appropriate for any professional consideration.

In January 2011, NCTQ announced its partnership with U.S. News and World Report, and launched a review of the nation's 1,400 education schools that is due to be published in 2012. But when they announced their methodology, problems remained.

The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education responded with a member alert.

"[NCTQ's] efforts have utilized methodologies that do not meet the standards of basic scientific research. For example, they have assessed course syllabi and handbooks against "standards" – that are neither research based nor representative of any established consensus – as a means of evaluating teacher preparation programs. AACTE has consulted with its member institutions as they have encountered difficulties with NCTQ...Institutions being contacted by NCTQ can thus be aware of the experience of others as they consider participation in any way with NCTQ "studies".

In a February letter, officials from 35 leading education colleges and graduate schools — including Columbia, Harvard, Michigan State and Vanderbilt — denounced an "implied coercion" if they do not cooperate with the ratings. The deans said,

"Equating missing data with instrumental failure is simply dishonest. And doing so would surely result in a devaluing of the overall rating."

NCTQ President Kate Walsh responded to concerns saying,

"As for the consequences for institutions that choose not to cooperate, let me be clear that all institutions will be rated regardless of their decisions. There are standards which do not require cooperation, and we will rate those as planned. After hearing your concerns, we have decided, however, not to automatically fail institutions that do not participate. We instead expect to estimate for the remaining standards based on the material that we are able to assemble. Those ranking based on estimates will be clearly labeled. However, the public will be informed that the school refused to supply information needed and that alternative methods were used to develop the rankings. This is a format used by U.S. News. If you have an alternative method that will encourage cooperation, we are certainly open to considering it."

Brian Kelly, the editor of US News and World Report, acknowledged this concern during an interview with New York Times and said NCTQ will stop failing schools that don't have statistics for certain standards. "We regret that language. "It's really not the way we want to be doing business."

"new rankings will not be published until sometime in the second half of 2012. NCTQ is all ready working on data collection and has sent surveys to the schools. NCTQ will collect all the data and produce the ranking. U.S. News will carefully vet the results before they are published to make sure they are up to our standards."

In mid March, Kentucky Education Commissioner Terry Holliday, along with EPSB's Phil Rogers, CPE's Bob King joined the leadership of Kentucky's private and public colleges and universities and a growing list of state education leaders who have objected to the methodology used by the NCTQ.

In a letter to NCTQ composed by UK Ed Dean Mary John O'Hair, the Kentucky leadership said,

"we have met with additional individuals and agencies in Kentucky to reassess our decision regarding endorsing the NCTQ report to be sure we are doing what is best to address that important, commonly held goal. After we carefully examined NCTQ's response, participated in webinars and attended the NCTQ presentation in San Diego at the 2011 AACTE annual conference, we stand with the majority of colleges and universities across the U.S. that have elected not to endorse the NCTQ investigative report…

"…we remain convinced that your proposed investigative report fails to measure vital activities that we believe would more accurately inform the public of the quality of our teacher preparation programs. Hence, we cannot in good conscience endorse the methodology or results of your effort."

James Cibulka president of NCATE (and former UK Ed Dean) acknowledged the flaws in the NCTQ paper-review methodology without specific comment, and vowed that NCATE accreditation assessments would

"remain totally independent. How an institution fares in the ratings or even whether it decides to participate with NCTQ/USNWR at all can have no bearing on our accreditation decisions, and there should be no appearance of entanglement. We will fairly consider for accreditation both those that participate in the NCTQ/USNWR ratings and that do not."

Cibulka, and virtually everyone would agree that teacher education programs can be improved. But he rejected as false information NCTQ President Kate Walsh's claim that he agreed with her view that teacher education in schools of education is broken.

The federal education secretary, Arne Duncan, has said that many, if not most, teacher-training programs are mediocre. "It is time to start holding teacher-preparation programs more accountable for the impact of their graduates on student learning," Duncan said in a speech in November.

So, if Duncan's plan comes to pass, teacher educators (but not general education teachers in other colleges within the universities, and not Teach for America) will be held accountable for the actions of their "grandstudents" – whom they will have never met. I'm trying to think of another field where such an arcane notion might be in practice.

It also must be noted that while Holliday objects to the bad methodology in this case, he has flirted with significant parts of the same shaky ideology for use within Kentucky. He told the 2010 gathering of the Kentucky Association of Teacher Educators that Ed schools "ought to have some skin in the game" and he signaled an interest in evaluating teacher ed programs by looking at the results of these grandstudents.

Considering that Kentucky does not yet have an effective and (relatively) fair way of assessing the value-added to student achievement by P-12 educators (one that factors in all variables, including socio-economic status) one shudders to think of the level of reliability, validity and fairness one might expect from this new plan. While I fully understand the need to motivate the troops, we don't need ideas that are big-hearted but empty-headed.

The Kentucky leaders clearly indicated to NCTQ, that those who are supposed safeguard the integrity of research methodology ought not support what they know to be bad design.

Assessments are underway [in Kentucky] as multiple partners have developed a comprehensive accountability system for Kentucky's teacher preparation programs. The system spans across the teacher's career with monitoring points built into the system that our programs will use for program improvement and the EPSB will use for accountability. The following points will be monitored and provided to the public through the EPSB Data Dashboard:

  • Admission standards/criteria continuously monitored including minimum GPA of 2.75, a rigorous basic skills test for all teacher candidates, and candidate selection procedures that consider whether a candidate has skills in communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and flexibility.

  • Teacher Performance tasks built into student teaching with a focus on K-12 student learning within a co-teaching setting with the cooperating teacher.

  • Minimum cut scores on Praxis II with recognition for programs with candidates scoring in the 85th percentile and above.

  • The use of teacher performance assessments within the teacher's first year of employment.

  • The inclusion of teacher working conditions survey results.

  • Aggregate results for reviews of teacher preparation programs.

  • Teacher retention data included in program reviews.

  • School performance data of K-12 schools where at least 50% of the teachers are from a specific teacher preparation program.

The framework and the accountability systems in Kentucky, while not perfect, provide a much more accurate picture of quality and continuous improvement than NCTQ's present attempt.

"…we agree that grounded clinical practice, preparation of elementary school teachers, preparation of secondary school teachers, preparation of special education teacher, and entry into the program and profession are all vital elements in determining the effectiveness and quality of a teacher preparation program…we believe the methodology that you have developed to measure these standards inadequately demonstrates the effectiveness of a program, we cannot endorse your study."

EKU Education Dean Bill Phillips sees a narrow set of concerns underlying NCTQ's method. It all has to do with teaching reading and the touting of certain brain research, but that is not readily apparent.

Phillips' first involvement with the issues came when Kentucky's education deans were recruited to participate in the study. That started a conversation among the deans "as to whether or not we should [participate] because of the past history of their methodology." Then followed a national discussion via email with the US education deans and various organizations like AACTE; and the consensus of almost all of the deans was that "[NCTQ] really had just been there to try and stir up the public against colleges of education."

That led to Dean O'Hair writing a letter that was shared and edited by the Kentucky group.

And what is the thinking behind not participating?

"Our thought was to send the letter and tell them what our concerns are and then, hopefully, they will change the methodology." Much of Kentucky's concern was that the NCTQ method only looked at inputs to the system and then saying, without evidence, that those inputs affect the outcomes for students.

"It's partially true. Certainly, if you take the very top minds in the country and put them in teacher education; the students are coming out, from Harvard, with a good education, and from Columbia and schools like that. They come out very bright. But they started very bright. Because of the work on…dispositions…a lot of, particularly regional universities around the country that say, we really can change a person's knowledge and behaviors coming out of the university," Phillips said.

Phillips thinks the argument NCTQ and others are trying to make is that Ed schools should only accept the very best and brightest into teacher education – the top third. "They claim," Phillips said, "that we take the bottom third…and as a result, we have poor quality."

One wonders what would happen to regional universities' service to their states and the impact such a policy might have on multicultural diversity among the American teaching force. One wonders if such a policy suggests that education is wasted on the undereducated.

Phillips discovered in the process of reviewing the requested information that NCTQ is particularly interested in the latest brain research, which was not readily apparent from the initial request. Phillips didn't know what they were looking for until the open records request provided some revelations.

"They want to make the case that we're not using the latest brain research in teaching reading. So they have asked for the syllabi, and then gone on to ask for all kinds of other information about who we admit to programs, how we admit them, our policies on student teaching, and tenure, agreements we have with school districts, and, it's pretty exhaustive. Basically it's undergraduate, initial certification that they're looking for. And what they said was that if you don't participate in this then we're going to give you an F and we'll embarrass you. Well, what they found out was that only 10 percent of the colleges in the country agreed to the survey."

That group includes Western Kentucky University.

Now, in states like Wisconsin and Michigan, other conservative groups are asking for open records on faculty emails. This new tactic is being compared to McCarthyism and perhaps underscores the importance of maintaining tenure for faculty.

My quick take is: We'd better keep faculty tenure, but turn over the emails.

As for the true motivations of Walsh and NCTQ, evidence supports a conclusion of outrageous bias. Seattle Education 2010 did some digging but found Walsh's vitae tough to locate. The closest SE2010 got to her background in education was an excerpt from a book titled The Teachers We Need vs. The Teachers We Have by Lawrence Baines. In chapter 7 he writes: The

National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) is another organization that promotes alternative certification while attempting to masquerade as an objective, research-focused agency. The similarity of the name of the National Council on Teacher Quality to the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher education (NCATE) is no coincidence.

Whereas NCATE advocates rigorous standards for teachers, including a full-semester or longer of student teaching and challenging and relevant course work, NCTQ advocates a student teaching experience of a few weeks and limited course work. Unsurprisingly, the president of NCTQ is an alternatively certified teacher who started the first alternative certification program in Maryland. Chester Finn, who sits on the board of directors of the NCTQ also happens to be the President of ABCTE [from which Walsh resigned amid controversy in 2005].

Thus, two organizations (NCEI and NCTQ) who provide the federal government and state agencies with data on alternative certification are also dependent upon the continuing proliferation of alternative certification for their survival. Given this reality, it seems unlikely that either NCEI or NCTQ will ever have anything negative to say about alternative certification.

Let's review the facts. The Chief Executive Officer of a business that provides alternative certification for a fee (Chester Finn, of ABCTE) is on the board of directors of the organization that provides the reports (NCTQ) that promote the benefits of alternative certification. Not only has the federal government failed to launch an independent evaluation of teacher quality, it has relied upon NCEI and NCTQ to provide data about the quantity and quality of alternatively-certified teachers.

When a wolf is appointed to guard the sheep, one must expect that casualties will be heavy. As teacher certification across the United States has gotten easier, quicker, and more profitable for the wolves, the sheep have started disappearing.

Eventually, one would hope that the rationale upon which the alternative certification business empire has been built—that unprepared, inexperienced students with poor academic records are somehow superior to well-prepared, experienced teachers with stellar academic records—will not stand.